Anti Oxidants

Antioxidants : http://8swiss.com/antioxidants/index.htm

KeyWords: free radicals, antioxidants, beneficial effects, deleterious effects, oxidative stress, diseases, health, reactive nitrogen species, RNS, reactive oxygen species, ROS, ATP, adenosine triphosphate, mitochondria, cellular redox

Description and Abstracts:

KeyWords: free radicals, antioxidants, beneficial effects, deleterious effects, oxidative stress, diseases, health, reactive nitrogen species, RNS, reactive oxygen species, ROS, ATP, adenosine triphosphate, mitochondria, cellular redox

Description and Abstracts:

Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Diets high in vegetables and fruits, which are good sources of antioxidants, have been found to be healthy; however, research has not shown antioxidant supplements to be beneficial in preventing diseases. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, selenium, and carotenoids, such as beta- carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. Free radical production occurs continuously in all cells as part of normal cellular function. However, excess free radical production originating from endogenous or exogenous sources might play a role in many diseases. Antioxidants prevent free radical induced tissue damage by prevent- ing the formation of radicals, scavenging them, or by promoting their decomposition. This article reviews the basic chemistry of free radical formation in the body, the consequences of free radical induced tissue damage, and the function of anti- oxidant defense systems, with particular reference to the development of atherosclerosis. An antioxidant can be defined as: any substance that, when present in low concentrations compared to that of an oxidisable substrate, significantly delays or inhibits the oxidation of that substrate. The physiological role of antioxidants, as this definition suggests, is to prevent damage to cellular components arising as a consequence of chemical reactions involving free radicals. Accumulating scientific evidence suggests that overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be the root cause of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, and aging per se. Free radicals and oxidants play a dual role as both toxic and beneficial compounds, since they can be either harmful or helpful to the body. They are produced either from normal cell metabolisms in situ or from external sources (pollution, cigarette smoke, radiation, medication). When an overload of free radicals cannot gradually be destroyed, their accumulation in the body generates a phenomenon called oxidative stress. This process plays a major part in the development of chronic and degenerative illness such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, aging, cataract, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The human body has several mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by producing antioxidants, which are either naturally produced in situ, or externally supplied through foods and/or supplements. This mini-review deals with the taxonomy, the mechanisms of formation and catabolism of the free radicals, it examines their beneficial and deleterious effects on cellular activities, it highlights the potential role of the antioxidants in preventing and repairing damages caused by oxidative stress, and it discusses the antioxidant supplementation in health maintenance. Oxygen is an element indispensable for life. When cells use oxygen to generate energy, free radicals are created as a consequence of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) production by the mitochondria. These by-products are generally reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that result from the cellular redox process. These species play a dual role as both toxic and beneficial compounds. The delicate balance between their two antagonistic effects is clearly an important aspect of life. At low or moderate levels, ROS and RNS exert beneficial effects on cellular responses and immune function. At high concentrations, they generate oxidative stress, a deleterious process that can damage all cell structures. Oxidative stress plays a major part in the development of chronic and degenerative ailments such as cancer, arthritis, aging, autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The human body has several mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by producing antioxidants, which are either naturally produced in situ, or externally supplied through foods and/or supplements. Endogenous and exogenous antioxidants act as free radical scavengers by preventing and repairing damages caused by ROS and RNS, and therefore can enhance the immune defense and lower the risk of cancer and degenerative diseases. Antioxidants in preventing and repairing damages caused by oxidative stress, and it discusses the advantages and inconveniences of the antioxidant supplementation in health maintenance.


PDF Source: antioxidants-in-foods.PDF | The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods beverages spices herbs and supplements used worldwide

Email: greg@swissmixit.com