Black Seed

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KeyWords: Nigella sativa, black cumin, caraway, Kalonji, thymoquinone, Miracle herb, Ranunculaceae, Habat-ul-Sauda, Thymoquinone, Tibb-e-Nabwi, Black seeds, Anti-diabetic, Antioxidant, Black seeds, Anti-diabetic, Antioxidant, Central nervous system, Neuropharmacological effects, Anticoagulant, Antiviral, Chloroquine, SARS-CoV-2, RNA dependent RNA polymerase, Zinc transporter, Pneumocytes

Description and Abstracts:

KeyWords: Nigella sativa, black cumin, caraway, Kalonji, thymoquinone, Miracle herb, Ranunculaceae, Habat-ul-Sauda, Thymoquinone, Tibb-e-Nabwi, Black seeds, Anti-diabetic, Antioxidant, Black seeds, Anti-diabetic, Antioxidant, Central nervous system, Neuropharmacological effects, Anticoagulant, Antiviral, Chloroquine, SARS-CoV-2, RNA dependent RNA polymerase, Zinc transporter, Pneumocytes

Description and Abstracts:

Popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. Has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. Nigella sativa (black seed or black cumin), which belongs to the Ranunculacea family, is an annual herb with many pharmacological properties. Among its many active constituents, thymoquinone (TQ) is the most abundant constituent of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seeds, and it is the constituent to which most properties of this herb are attributed. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others. In this review, the potential of Nigella sativa (black cumin seeds) to treat the patients with COVID-19 analyzed, as it has shown to possess antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive, antipyretic and analgesic activities. Various randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, case reports and in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that N.sativa has antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive activities related to causative oraganism and signs and symptoms of COVID-19. N. sativa could be used as an adjuvant therapy along with repurposed conventional drugs to manage the patients with COVID-19. The SARS-CoV binds its spike (S) proteins to host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Following entry, the viral RNA is released in the cytoplasm – a potential site of thymoquinone to stop the release. In line with the proposed use of chloroquine, Nigella sativa (black seed) could be considered as a natural substitute that contains a number of bioactive components such as thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, and nigellimine. Further benefits to use N. sativa could be augmented by Zn supplement. Notably, Zn has been proven to improve innate and adaptive immunity in the course of any infection, be it by pathogenic virus or bacteria. The effectiveness of the Zn salt supplement could also be enhanced with N. sativa as its major bioactive component might work as ionophore to allow Zn2+ to enter pneumocytes – the target cell for SARSCoV-2.


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