The design of green and sustainable extraction methods of natural products is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. This includes hydrodynamic cavitation and using vegetable oil as a solvent. Green extraction of natural products is based on design of extraction processes which will reduce or eliminate energy consumption and petroleum solvents, while ensuring a safe extract and quality.

Keywords: Natural products, Extraction, Isolation, Natural medicine, Chromatography, Phytochemical investigation, vegetable oils, alternative bio-based solvents, green oleo-extraction, natural products, polar paradox, solvent-solute simulation, limocitrol, lemon, citrus, bioeconomy, biocolorant, flavonoids, citrus fruits, coronavirus, COVID-19, flavonoids, hesperetin, hesperidin, hydrodynamic cavitation, pectin, SARS CoV 2, hydrodynamic cavitation, process intensification, rotor stator hydrodynamic rector, plant extraction, biomass treatment, high pressure homogenization (HPH), wine technology, microbial inactivation, ageing on lees, yeast autolysis, green extraction, alternative solvents, innovative process, natural products, green chemistry, olive leaves, natural products, tandem mass spectrometry, alternative solvents, green extraction, bio-based solvent, ionic liquids, NADES, water, solvent-free, compressed gas, supercritical solvent, intensification, functional food, extract, biological active compounds, innovative technology, oleaginous microorganisms, lipid extraction, pretreatment, cell disruption, Maceration, Soxhlet extraction, Microwave assisted extraction, Ultrasound-assisted extraction, Accelerated solvent extraction, Supercritical-fluid extraction, Medic

Summary of Abstracts:

Techniques for extraction and isolation of natural products: Natural products have provided the primary sources for new drug development. From the 1940s to the end of 2014, nearly half of the FDA approved chemical drugs for the treatment of human diseases were derived from or inspired by natural products. Natural products offer more drug-like features to molecules from combinatorial chemistry in terms of functional groups, chirality, and structural complexity. There is an urgent need to develop effective and selective methods for the extraction and isolation of bio- active natural products. Extraction is the first step to separate the desired natu- ral products from the raw materials. Extraction methods include solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing and sublimation according to the extraction principle. Solvent extraction is the most widely used method. The extraction of natural products progresses through the following stages: (1) the solvent penetrates into the solid matrix; (2) the solute dissolves in the solvents; (3) the solute is diffused out of the solid matrix; (4) the extracted solutes are collected. Any factor enhancing the diffusivity and solubility in the above steps will facilitate the extraction.

Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products: [ Vegetable oil can be used as an effective solvent to extract oil from botanicals. ] Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

Glycerol and Glycerol-Based Deep Eutectic Mixtures as Emerging Green Solvents for Polyphenol Extraction: The Evidence So Far: The acknowledgement that uncontrolled and excessive use of fossil resources has become a prime concern with regard to environmental deterioration, has shifted the orientation of economies towards the implementation of sustainable routes of production, through the valorization of biomass. Green chemistry plays a key role in this regard, defining the framework of processes that encompass eco-friendly methodologies, which aim at the development of highly efficient production of numerous bioderived chemicals, with minimum environmental aggravation. One of the major concerns of the chemical industry in establishing sustainable routes of production, is the replacement of fossil-derived, volatile solvents, with bio-based benign ones, with low vapor pressure, recyclability, low or no toxicity, availability and low cost. Glycerol is a natural substance, inexpensive and non-toxic, and it is a principal by-product of biodiesel industry resulting from the transesterification process. The ever-growing market of biodiesel has created a significant surplus of glycerol production, resulting in a concomitant drop of its price. Thus, glycerol has become a highly available, low-cost liquid, and over the past decade its use as an alternative solvent has been gaining unprecedented attention. This review summarizes the utilization of glycerol and glycerol-based deep eutectic mixtures as emerging solvents with outstanding prospect in bioactive polyphenol extraction.

Short Review: Timeline of the Electrochemical Lithium Recovery System Using the Spinel LiMn2O4 as a Positive Electrode: Various lithium recovery technologies have been developed as securing lithium resources has become increasingly important. Among these technologies, the electrochemical lithium recovery (ELR) system is a rapid and eco-friendly extraction method that has been studied recently. In this paper, an ELR system using a spinel-type LiMn2O4 (LMO) is briefly reviewed. As LMO electrodes have high Li+ selectivity and stability compared to other lithium battery cathodes, they have been widely used as positive electrodes for the ELR system. This paper summarizes the system proposal, LMO electrode modification, system analysis, and industrial applications. Perspectives of the ELR technology are presented considering the progress of the research.

Application of Ultrasound Pre-Treatment for Enhancing Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Rice Straw: The extraction of water-soluble bioactive compounds using different green methods is an eco-friendly alternative for valorizing agricultural wastes such as rice straw (RS). The thermal aqueous extraction of RS applying the 30 min US pre-treatment, represents a green and efficient approach to obtain bioactive extracts for food applications.

Valorisation of Exhausted Olive Pomace by an Eco-Friendly Solvent Extraction Process of Natural Antioxidants: Exhausted olive pomace (EOP) is the waste generated from the drying and subsequent extraction of residual oil from the olive pomace. In this work, the effect of different aqueous solvents on the recovery of antioxidant compounds from this lignocellulosic biomass was assessed. Water extraction was selected as the best option for recovering bioactive compounds from EOP, and the influence of the main operational parameters involved in the extraction was evaluated by response surface methodology. Hydroxytyrosol was identified as the major phenolic compound in EOP aqueous extracts. Moreover, these extracts showed high antioxidant activity, as well as moderate bactericidal action against some food-borne pathogens. In general, these results indicate the great potential of EOP as a source of bioactive compounds, with potential uses in several industrial applications.

A Review of the Use of Eutectic Solvents, Terpenes and Terpenoids in Liquid–liquid Extraction Processes: Diverse and abundant applications of the eutectic solvents have appeared in the last years. Their promising tunable properties, eco-friendly character and the possibility of being prepared from numerous compounds have led to the publication of numerous papers addressing their use in different areas. Terpenes and terpenoids have been employed in the formulation of eutectic solvents, though they also have been applied as solvents in extraction processes. For their hydrophobic nature, renewable character, low environmental impact, cost and being non-hazardous, they have also been proposed as possible substitutes of conventional solvents in the separation of organic compounds from aqueous streams, similarly to hydrophobic eutectic solvents.

Acid-Free Hydrothermal-Extraction and Molecular Structure of Carbon Quantum Dots Derived from Empty Fruit Bunch Biochar: Carbon quantum dots (CQD) have great potential to be used in various applications due to their unique electrical and optical properties. Herein, a facile, green and eco-friendly hydrothermal method for the preparation of carbon quantum dots was achieved using empty fruit bunch (EFB) biochar as a renewable and abundant carbon source.

Eco-Friendly Cellulose Nanofiber Extraction from Sugarcane Bagasse and Film Fabrication: The development of cost-effective cellulose fibers by utilizing agricultural residues have been attracted by the scientific community in the past few years; however, a facile production route along with minimal processing steps and a significant reduction in harsh chemical use is still lacking. Here, we report a straightforward ultrasound-assisted method to extract cellulose nanofiber (CNF) from fibrous waste sugarcane bagasse. Our results suggest that a combination of ultrasound-based extraction and hot press-based film preparation is an efficient route of producing high strength CNF films.

Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Stable Yellow Natural Colorant Production from Waste Lemon Peel: A brief technical and economic insight into producing the water-soluble yellow colorant limocitrol from waste lemon peel via simple solid liquid extraction in aqueous ethanol or via hydrodynamic cavitation of waste lemon peel in water shows that the biocolorant can be obtained with multiple technical and economic advantages. Coupled with the simplicity and sustainability of the extraction processes suggested, the high chemical and physical stability of this polymethoxylated flavonol and the health benefits of citrus flavonoids support industrialization of this new bioeconomy production.

Review of Evidence Available on Hesperidin-Rich Products as Potential Tools against COVID-19 and Hydrodynamic Cavitation-Based Extraction as a Method of Increasing Their Production: [ Controlled hydrodynamic cavitation processes showed the highest speed, effectiveness and efficiency in the integral and green aqueous extraction of flavonoids, essential oils and pectin from citrus peel waste. ] Based on recent computational and experimental studies, hesperidin, a bioactive flavonoid abundant in citrus peel, stands out for its high binding affinity to the main cellular receptors of SARS-CoV-2, outperforming drugs already recommended for clinical trials. Thus, it is very promising for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID 19, along with other coexistent flavonoids such as naringin, which could help restraining the proinflammatory overreaction of the immune system. Controlled hydrodynamic cavitation processes showed the highest speed, effectiveness and efficiency in the integral and green aqueous extraction of flavonoids, essential oils and pectin from citrus peel waste. After freeze-drying, the extracted pectin showed high quality and excellent antioxidant and antibacterial activities, attributed to flavonoids and essential oils adsorbed and concentrated on its surface. This study reviews the recent evidence about hesperidin as a promising molecule, and proposes a feasible and affordable process based on hydrodynamic cavitation for the integral aqueous extraction of citrus peel waste resulting in hesperidin rich products, either aqueous extracts or pectin tablets. The uptake of this process on a relevant scale is urged, in order to achieve large-scale production and distribution of hesperidin rich products. Meanwhile, experimental and clinical studies could determine the effective doses either for therapeutic and preventive purposes.

Controlled Hydrodynamic Cavitation: A Review of Recent Advances and Perspectives for Greener Processing: The 20th century has witnessed a remarkable enhancement in the demand for varieties of consumer products, ranging from food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, to other industries. To enhance the quality of the product and to reduce the production cost, industries are gradually inclined towards greener processing technologies. Cavitation-based technologies are gaining interest among processing technologies due to their cost effectiveness in operation, minimization of toxic solvent usage, and ability to obtain superior processed products compared to conventional methods. Also, following the recent advancements, cavitation technology with large-scale processing applicability is only denoted to the hydrodynamic cavitation (HC)-based method. This review includes a general overview of hydrodynamic cavitation-based processing technologies and a detailed discussion regarding the process effectiveness. HC has demonstrated its usefulness in food processing, extraction of valuable products, biofuel synthesis, emulsification, and waste remediation, including broad-spectrum contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, bacteria, dyes, and organic pollutants of concern. Following the requirement of a specific process, HC has been implemented either alone or in combination with other process-intensifying steps, for example, catalyst, surfactant, ultraviolet (UV), hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, for better performance. The reactor set-up of HC includes orifice, slit venturi, rotor-stator, and sonolator type constrictions that initiate and control the formation of bubbles. Moreover, the future directions have also been pointed out with careful consideration of specific drawbacks.

Plant and Biomass Extraction and Valorisation under Hydrodynamic Cavitation: [ Hydrodynamic cavitation is a promising strategy for extraction processes and provides the fast and efficient recovery of valuable compounds from plants and biomass with high quality. ] Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is a green technology that has been successfully used to intensify a number of process. The cavitation phenomenon is responsible for many effects, including improvements in mass transfer rates and effective cell-wall rupture, leading to matrix disintegration. HC is a promising strategy for extraction processes and provides the fast and efficient recovery of valuable compounds from plants and biomass with high quality. It is a simple method with high energy efficiency that shows great potential for large-scale operations. This review presents a general discussion of the mechanisms of HC, its advantages, different reactor configurations, its applications in the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants, lipids from algal biomass and delignification of lignocellulosic biomass, and a case study in which the HC extraction of basil leftovers is compared with that of other extraction methods.

Potential Applications of High Pressure Homogenization in Winemaking: A Review: High pressure homogenization (HPH) is an emerging technology with several possible applications in the food sector, such as nanoemulsion preparation, microbial and enzymatic inactivation, cell disruption for the extraction of intracellular components, as well as modification of food biopolymer structures to steer their functionalities. All these effects are attributable to the intense mechanical stresses, such as cavitation and shear forces, suffered by the product during the passage through the homogenization valve. The exploitation of the disruptive forces delivered during HPH was also recently proposed for winemaking applications. In this review, after a general description of HPH and its main applications in food processing, the survey is extended to the use of this technology for the production of wine and fermented beverages, particularly focusing on the effects of HPH on the inactivation of wine microorganisms and the induction of yeast autolysis. Further enological applications of HPH technology, such as its use for the production of inactive dry yeast preparations, are also discussed.

Cavitation Technology—The Future of Greener Extraction Method: A Review on the Extraction of Natural Products and Process Intensification Mechanism and Perspectives: With growing consumer demand for natural products, greener extraction techniques are found to be potential alternatives especially for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic manufacturing industries. Cavitation based technology has drawn immense attention as a greener extraction method, following its rapid and effective extraction of numerous natural products compared to conventional techniques. The advantages of cavitation-based extraction (CE) are to eliminate the application of toxic solvents, reduction of extraction time and to achieve better extraction yield, as well as purity. The cavitational phenomena enhance the extraction efficiency via increased mass transfer rate between the substrate and solvent, following the cell wall rupture, due to the intense implosion of bubbles.

Green Extraction of Natural Products: Concept and Principles: The design of green and sustainable extraction methods of natural products is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Herein we aimed to introduce the six principles of green-extraction, describing a multifaceted strategy to apply this concept at research and industrial level. The mainstay of this working protocol are new and innovative technologies, process intensification, agro-solvents and energy saving. The concept, principles and examples of green extraction here discussed, offer an updated glimpse of the huge technological effort that is being made and the diverse applications that are being developed.

Eco-Friendly Extraction and Characterisation of Nutraceuticals from Olive Leaves: Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf, a waste by-product of the olive oil industry, is an inexpensive and abundant source of biophenols of great interest for various industrial applications in the food supplement, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, the aqueous extraction of high-added value compounds from olive leaves by using microfiltered (MF), ultrapure (U), and osmosis-treated (O) water was investigated. The extraction of target compounds, including oleuropein (Olp), hydroxytyrosol (HyTyr), tyrosol (Tyr), verbascoside (Ver), lutein (Lut), and rutin (Rut), was significantly affected by the characteristics of the water used. The extraction power of ultrapure and osmosis-treated water proved to be very similar for the bio-active compounds oleuropein, verbascoside, lutein, and rutin. The results clearly provide evidence of the possibility of devising new eco-friendly strategies based on the use of green solvents which can be applied to recover bioactive compounds from olive leaves.

Review of Alternative Solvents for Green Extraction of Food and Natural Products: Panorama, Principles, Applications and Prospects: The ideal alternative solvents suitable for green extraction should have high solvency, high flash points with low toxicity and low environmental impacts, be easily biodegradable, obtained from renewable (non-petrochemical) resources at a reasonable price and should be easy to recycle without any deleterious effect to the environment.

Environmentally Friendly Methods for Flavonoid Extraction from Plant Material: Impact of Their Operating Conditions on Yield and Antioxidant Properties: The flavonoids are compounds synthesized by plants, and they have properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial, among others. One of the most important bioactive properties of flavonoids is their antioxidant effect. Synthetic antioxidants have side toxic effects whilst natural antioxidants, such as flavonoids from natural sources, have relatively low toxicity. Therefore, it is important to incorporate flavonoids derived from natural sources in several products such as foods, cosmetics, and drugs. For this reason, there is currently a need to extract flavonoids from plant resources. Described the most important parameters involved in the extraction of flavonoids by unconventional methods such as ultrasound, pressurized liquid extraction, mechanochemical, high hydrostatic pressure, supercritical fluid, negative pressure cavitation, intensification of vaporization by decompression to the vacuum, microwave, infrared, pulsed electric field, high-voltage electrical discharges, and enzyme-assisted extraction.

Novel Food Processing and Extraction Technologies of High-Added Value Compounds from Plant Materials: Some functional foods contain biologically active compounds (BAC) that can be derived from various biological sources (fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, wastes, and by-products). sustainable extractions, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), high-pressure assisted extraction (HPAE), high voltage electric discharges assisted extraction (HVED), pulsed electric fields assisted extraction (PEF), supercritical fluids extraction (SFE), and others are aligned with the green concepts and able to provide raw materials on industrial scale with optimal expenditure of energy and chemicals.

An Overview of Current Pretreatment Methods Used to Improve Lipid Extraction from Oleaginous Microorganisms: Microbial oils, obtained from oleaginous microorganisms are an emerging source of commercially valuable chemicals ranging from pharmaceuticals to the petroleum industry. In petroleum biorefineries, the microbial biomass has become a sustainable source of renewable biofuels. Biodiesel is mainly produced from oils obtained from oleaginous microorganisms involving various upstream and downstream processes, such as cultivation, harvesting, lipid extraction, and transesterification.

A Review on the Extraction Methods Use in Medicinal Plants, Principle, Strength and Limitation: Medicinal plants are gaining much interest recently because their use in ethno medicine treating common disease such as cold, fever and other medicinal claims are now supported with sound scientific evidences. The study on medicinal plants started with extraction procedures that play a critical role to the extraction outcomes (e.g. yield and phytochemicals content) and also to the consequent assays performed. A wide range of technologies with different methods of extraction is available nowadays. Hence, this review aim to describe and compare the most commonly used methods based on their principle, strength and limitation to help evaluating the suitability and economic feasibility of the methods.

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