Free Radicals

Free-Radicals : http://8swiss.com/free-radicals/index.htm

KeyWords: Free radicals, Reactive oxygen species (ROS), Reactive nitrogen species (RNS), free radical, antioxidants, beneficial effects, deleterious effects, oxidative stress, diseases, health, atherosclerosis, DNA damage, flavonoids, free radicals, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, isoprostanes, lipid peroxidation, oxidative protein damage, oxidative stress, phytochemicals,Molecular oxygen, Reactive oxygen species, Reactive secondary sequence, Polymerization, Lipid peroxidation, Membrane fluidity, Free-radical inhibitor

Description and Abstracts:

KeyWords: Free radicals, Reactive oxygen species (ROS), Reactive nitrogen species (RNS), free radical, antioxidants, beneficial effects, deleterious effects, oxidative stress, diseases, health, atherosclerosis, DNA damage, flavonoids, free radicals, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, isoprostanes, lipid peroxidation, oxidative protein damage, oxidative stress, phytochemicals,Molecular oxygen, Reactive oxygen species, Reactive secondary sequence, Polymerization, Lipid peroxidation, Membrane fluidity, Free-radical inhibitor

Description and Abstracts:

Free radicals and other oxidants have gained importance in the field of biology due to their central role in various physiological conditions as well as their impli- cation in a diverse range of diseases. The free radicals, both the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), are derived from both endogenous sources (mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, phagocytic cells etc.) and exogenous sources (pollution, alcohol, tobacco smoke, heavy metals, transition metals, industrial solvents, pesticides, certain drugs like halothane, paracetamol, and radiation). Free radicals and oxidants play a dual role as both toxic and beneficial compounds, since they can be either harmful or helpful to the body. They are produced either from normal cell metabolisms in situ or from external sources (pollution, cigarette smoke, radiation, medication). When an overload of free radicals cannot gradually be destroyed, their accumulation in the body generates a phenomenon called oxidative stress. The human body has several mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by producing antioxidants, which are either naturally produced in situ, or externally supplied through foods and/or supplements. Alcohol promotes the generation of ROS and/or interferes with the body’s normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. For example, alcohol breakdown in the liver results in the formation of molecules whose further metabolism in the cell leads to ROS production. Plants contain significant amount of polyphenols comprising of different groups such as flavonoids and phenolic acids which are further divided into subgroups. These polyphenols are known to prevent certain disease conditions by their ability to scavenge active free radicals species. Hence, the researchers today are emphasizing on evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of various plants parts and foods. The free radical theory of aging has provided a theoretical framework for an enormous amount of work leading to significant advances in our understanding of aging. Up to the turn of the century, the theory received abundant support from observations coming from fields as far apart as comparative physiology or molecular biology. Recent advances: Work from many laboratories supports the theory, for instance showing that overexpression of antioxidant enzymes results in increases in life-span. This minimally invasive methodology enabled a quantitative evaluation of potent antioxidant activity in situ in the stratum corneum reflecting real‐life skin conditions and confirming the benefits of the topical application of a product containing 3 antioxidants in the prevention of UVA‐induced oxidative damage. Free radicals are an outcome of various metabolic activities and their excess production leads to many diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to neutralize excess free radicals. The different extracts of S. wallichii scavenged different free radicals efficiently due to the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols and may be helpful in free radical-induced diseases. In conclusion, cornsilk contained high polyphenol components with strong free radical scavenging activity thus could be considered as potential source of natural antioxidant. Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly formed in the human body. Free-radical mechanisms have been implicated in the pathology of several human diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria, and rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidant defenses to remove O2 and H2O2 exist. Human skin is constantly directly exposed to the air, solar radiation, environmental pollutants, or other mechanical and chemical insults, which are capable of inducing the generation of free radicals as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) of our own metabolism. Extrinsic skin damage develops due to several factors: ionizing radiation, severe physical and psychological stress, alcohol intake, poor nutrition, overeating, environmental pollution, and exposure to UV radiation (UVR). It is estimated that among all these environmental factors, UVR contributes up to 80%. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin develops oxidative stress, when their formation exceeds the antioxidant defence ability of the target cell. The only protection of our skin is in its endogenous protection (melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and antioxidants we consume from the food (vitamin A, C, E, etc.). The most important strategy to reduce the risk of sun UVR damage is to avoid the sun exposure and the use of sunscreens. The next step is the use of exogenous antioxidants orally or by topical application and interventions in preventing oxidative stress and in enhanced DNA repair. Living cells continually generate free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the respiratory chain during energetic metabolism. ROS can either be harmful or play important physiological roles in our body. Besides being produced during normal cell metabolism there are numerous exogenous factors, such as irradiation by UV light, X-rays, gamma-rays, and atmospheric pollutants which may lead to generation of ROS. Human body has various intrinsic mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by producing antioxidants, or through externally derived foods and/or supplements. Oxygen is necessary for energy production via the electron transport chain in living organisms, a mechanism by which energy (ATP) is released to enable the cell carry out its normal physiological functions. This is attributed to its high redox potential which makes it a brilliant oxidizing agent capable of easily accepting electrons from reduced substrates. This contradictory effect of oxygen in living organisms necessitated the evolution of antioxidant system to protect against over oxidation and combat reactive oxygen species (ROS). The mitochondria are the most vital source of ROS production. Antioxidants primarily function to balance out free radicals generated during metabolic processes including during mechanisms involved in protecting the gut from inflammation and injury. Further, at adequate free-radical concentrations a reactive crosslinking unsaturated aldehyde lipid breakdown product can significantly support free-radical polymerization of lipid oils into rubbery gel-like solids and eventually even produce a crystalline lipid peroxidation with the double bond of O2. Most importantly, free-radical inhibitor hydroquinone intended for medical treatments in much pathology such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, infection/inflammation and also ageing has proven extremely effective in sequestering free radicals to prevent chain-growth reactive secondary sequence polymerization. Although free radicals are traditionally regarded as harmful by-products of aerobic cellular metabolism, this view has recently essentially changed and it is now evident that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are strongly regulated processes that play central roles in most cell signaling. During physiological and pathophysiology processes, ROS and RNS can act as secondary messengers and control gene expression, apoptosis, cell growth, cell cycle, cell adhesion, chemotaxis, protein-protein interactions and enzymatic functions, Ca2 and redox homeostasis, to name but a few functions. It appears, however, that antioxidant supplements do not provide adequate protection against oxidative stress and do not lead to an increase of the lifespan. Some current studies revealed that antioxidant treatment has either no effect or can even enhance mortality.


PDF Source: 0101-2061-cta-35-2-253.pdf | Chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of melanin from Auricularia auricula

PDF Source: 11746_1998_Article_32.pdf | Free Radicals, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

PDF Source: 12291_2014_Article_446.pdf | Free Radicals: Properties, Sources, Targets, and Their Implication in Various Diseases 2015

PDF Source: 1476-511X-9-89.pdf | Dietary olive oil effect on antioxidant status and fatty acid profile in the erythrocyte

PDF Source: 15216540701230529.pdf | Plant Polyphenols: How to Translate their in vitro Antioxidant Actions to in vivo Conditions

PDF Source: 1587015642_886_32.pdf | Free radical scavenging potential and antihaemolytic activity of methanolic T extract of Pouteria campechiana

PDF Source: 2005_03_263.pdf | Controversy of Free Radical Hypothesis: Reactive Oxygen Species

PDF Source: 2007-FREE-RADICALS-SCAVENGING-ACTIVITY-OF-SPEARMINT-METHANOLIC-EXTRACT.pdf | PHYTOCHEMICAL AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF SPEARMINT EXTRACT

PDF Source: 2156587212441939.pdf | Free Radical Theory of Aging and Antioxidant Supplements

PDF Source: 277-284.pdf | Alcohol, Oxidative Stress, and Free Radical Damage

PDF Source: 281_pdf.pdf | EVALUATE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ORYZANOL EXTRACTED FROM RICE BRAN OIL

PDF Source: 38909234.pdf | study of organosilicon free radicals

PDF Source: 85209169.pdf | Prospects for the prevention of free radical disease, regarding cancer and cardiovascular disease

PDF Source: _20201019-swissmixit-pdf-search-library-methodology.pdf | SwissMixIt Methodology

PDF Source: agriculture-10-00494.pdf | Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Monocultivar Olive Oils from Northeast Algeria

PDF Source: AmJPhys-Cell-1994-267-C177-North.pdf | Cell fatty acid composition affects free radical formation during lipid peroxidation

PDF Source: antibiotics-09-00731.pdf | Ayahuasca Beverages: Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Properties

PDF Source: antioxidants-03-00502.pdf | Changes of Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

PDF Source: antioxidants-09-00019.pdf | Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts

PDF Source: antioxidants-09-00157.pdf | Free Radical Research in Cancer

PDF Source: antioxidants-09-00305.pdf | Chemical Fingerprint of Free Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity in Dietary Fruits and Vegetables

PDF Source: antioxidants-09-01019-v2.pdf | Mechanistic Evaluation of Antioxidant Nutraceuticals Age-Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases

PDF Source: antioxidants-09-01067-v2.pdf | Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Extracts Comparative Analysis Regarding Their Phytonutrient Profiles, Antioxidant Capacity

PDF Source: antioxidants-09-01088.pdf | s Melatonin the Cornucopia of the 21st Century

PDF Source: antioxidants-09-01123.pdf | Bioactive Compounds of Edible Fruits with Their Anti-Aging Properties

PDF Source: antioxidants-in-health.pdf | Antioxidants in health and disease

PDF Source: applsci-10-07140.pdf | Quinoa Sourdough Fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014

PDF Source: AReviewonFreeRadicalsandAntioxidants.pdf | A Review on Free Radicals and Antioxidants

PDF Source: b53efb00-57a7-012a-a765-000c293b26d5.pdf | Olive oil and oxidative stress

PDF Source: BeckmanKBandBNAmes1998aFRTAReview.pdf | The Free Radical Theory of Aging Matures

PDF Source: cia-2-219.pdf | Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors

PDF Source: cia-2-377.pdf | Effects of antioxidant supplementation on the aging process

PDF Source: CN-10-287.pdf | Recognition of Functional Roles of Free Radicals

PDF Source: colloids-04-00038.pdf | Veiled Extra Virgin Olive Oils: Role of Emulsion, Water and Antioxidants

PDF Source: crystals-10-00966-v3.pdf | Facile Synthesis, Characterization, Anti-Microbial and Anti-Oxidant Properties Copper-Silver Nanostructures

PDF Source: CTMC-15-85.pdf | Computational Studies of Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Phenolic Compounds

PDF Source: DRP2012-135206.pdf | Free Radicals and Extrinsic Skin Aging

PDF Source: e-scan_oliveoil_appnote.pdf | Measuring Oxidative Resistance of Olive Oil using the Bruker

PDF Source: effects-free-radicals-aging-matures.pdf | Free Radical Theory of Aging Matures

PDF Source: effects-free-radicals-aging-theory.pdf | Ageing and the free radical theory

PDF Source: effects-free-radicals-aging.pdf | Effects of Free Radicals on Aging Process

PDF Source: emhj_1998_4_2_350_360.pdf | Free Radicals and antioxidants in health and disease 1998

PDF Source: ethn-20-01s1-s78.pdf | ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS

PDF Source: evaluation-of-free-radical-scavenging-activity-of-various-leaf-extracts.pdf | Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Various Leaf Extracts from Kedrostis foetidissima

PDF Source: EXD-28-1219.pdf | In situ antioxidant activity of a dermo‐cosmetic product

PDF Source: extraction-oryzanol-rice-bran-oil.pdf | EXTRACTION OF Oryzaonol from rice bran

PDF Source: Ferrari-PeroxidationsAntioxidantsandApoptosis.pdf | Free radicals, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in apoptosis: cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases

PDF Source: final-file-57a2c190a48d78.57021051.pdf | Free Radicals and Antioxidants

PDF Source: foods-09-00572.pdf | Formation and Inhibition of Lipid Alkyl Radicals

PDF Source: foods-09-01617.pdf | Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Extract and Its Anthocyanin and Copigment Fractions

PDF Source: free-radical-aging-theory-dead.pdf | The Free Radical Theory of Aging Is Dead. Long Live the Damage Theory

PDF Source: free-radical-calculations.pdf | Free Radical Substitution and Addition Reactions from Organic Chemistry

PDF Source: free-radical-chemistry.pdf | study of free radical chemistry: their role and pathophysiological significance

PDF Source: free-radical-generation-lipid-peroxidation-apoptosis-cells.pdf | Essential fatty acids enhance free radical generation and lipid peroxidation toinduce apoptosis of tumor cells

PDF Source: free-radical-scavenging-citrus-extract.pdf | Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Citrus

PDF Source: free-radical-scavenging-effect-of-various-extracts-of-leaves-of-balanites-aegyptiacal-delile-by-dpph-method.pdf | Free radical scavenging effect of various extracts of leaves of Balanites aegyptiaca(L

PDF Source: Free-radical-scavenging-propolis.pdf | Free radical scavenging activity of propolis

PDF Source: free-radicals-and-antioxidants-human-and-food-system.pdf | Free Radicals and Antioxidants: Human and Food System

PDF Source: free-radicals-antioxidants-and-disease.pdf | Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Disease

PDF Source: free-radicals-myth-facts.pdf | Free radicals and antioxidants: Myths, facts and mysteries

PDF Source: FREE-RADICALSCAVENGINGACTIVITYSCREENINGOFSOMEINDONESIANPLANTS.pdf | FREE-RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY SCREENING OF SOME INDONESIAN PLANTS

PDF Source: Free_radical_scavenging_activity_of_poly.pdf | Free radical scavenging

PDF Source: Free_Radicals_and_Their_Role_in_Different_Clinical.pdf | Free Radicals and Their Role in Different Clinical Conditions

PDF Source: FreeRadicalChemistryofPenicillinDerivativesPhDThesisSummary.pdf | Free Radical Chemistry of Penicillin Derivatives

PDF Source: FreeRadicalsPropertiesSourcesTargetsandTheir.pdf | Free Radicals: Properties, Sources, Targets, and Their Implication in Various Disease

PDF Source: FRTAVinaJARS2013.pdf | The Free Radical Theory of Aging Revisited: The Cell Signaling Disruption Theory of Aging

PDF Source: fsoa-04-272.pdf | Evaluation of the free-radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of Chilauni

PDF Source: fulltext_smjfnd-v1-1007.pdf | Future Edible Oil of India: Rice Bran Oil

PDF Source: HANNUN-DISSERTATION-2016.pdf | Development of Novel Spectroscopic Tools to Probe Free Radical Chemistry

PDF Source: IFSCC2014.pdf | The impact of Radical chain reactions inside cosmetic formulations

PDF Source: IJBS-4-89.pdf | Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health

PDF Source: ijms-21-08190.pdf | Light-Induced Oxidase Activity of DNAzyme-Modified Quantum Dots

PDF Source: JAPLR-07-00256.pdf | Role of free radicals and certain antioxidants in the management of huntington’s disease

PDF Source: JT-antioxidantIICIST2015.pdf | Antioxidant properties of rice bran oil from different varieties extracted by solvent extraction methods

PDF Source: Jurkiewicz-PhD-1995.pdf | THE ROLE OF FREE RADICALS, IRON, AND ANTIOXIDANTS IN ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION-INDUCED SKIN DAMAGE

PDF Source: life-10-00255.pdf | Protective Effects of Oenothera biennis against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress

PDF Source: marine-algae-free-radical-search-greentech.pdf | Marine algae as attractive source to skin care

PDF Source: md08008.pdf | Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Crude Extracts Isolated From Roots of Cassine Transvaalensis

PDF Source: melanin-protector-free-radicals.pdf | The Important Role of Melanin as Protector against Free Radicals in Skin

PDF Source: microorganisms-08-01583-v2.pdf | Evaluation of Yeast Strains for Pomegranate Alcoholic Beverage Production

PDF Source: molecules-16-07068.pdf | Verbascoside, a Novel Antioxidant, in Dermo-Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Topical Formulations

PDF Source: molecules-25-04856.pdf | Formulation of Creams Containing Spirulina platensis Powder with Different Nonionic Surfactants

PDF Source: molecules-25-04859.pdf | Callus Culture of Thai Basil Is an Effective Biological System for the Production of Antioxidants

PDF Source: molecules-25-04862-v2.pdf | Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil of Ten Labiatae Species

PDF Source: molecules-25-05160.pdf | Antioxidant Properties of Lyophilized Rosemary and Sage Extracts and its Effect to Prevent Lipid Oxidation

PDF Source: nihms288604.pdf | Free Radical Oxidation of Polyunsaturated Lipids: New Mechanistic Insights and the Development of Peroxyl Radical Clocks

PDF Source: nihms959119.pdf | Advancements in Free-Radical Pathologies and an Important Treatment Solution with a Free-Radical Inhibitor

PDF Source: nutritionreviews70-0257.pdf | Free radicals and antioxidants

PDF Source: Oxidants-Antioxidants-Cutaneous-Biology.pdf | Oxidants and Antioxidants in Cutaneous Biology

PDF Source: PIIS0002934300004125.pdf | The Evolution of Free Radicals and Oxidative Stress

PDF Source: PIIS0025619612648617.pdf | Free Radicals in Medicine

PDF Source: PIIS0085253815460880.pdf | Role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of lipid-induced glomerulosclerosis

PDF Source: plants-06-00042.pdf | Phytochemicals Extraction, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Extracts

PDF Source: plants-09-01552.pdf | PEG 6000-Stimulated Drought Stress Improves the Attributes of In Vitro Growth

PDF Source: plants-09-01555.pdf | Synanthropic Plants as an Underestimated Source of Bioactive Phytochemicals

PDF Source: polymers-11-01951.pdf | Caseinate-Stabilized Emulsions of Black Cumin and Tamanu Oils: Antibacterial Activity

PDF Source: processes-08-01291-v2.pdf | Initiator Feeding Policies in Semi-Batch Free Radical Polymerization

PDF Source: Radical-Beauty-How-to-.pdf | Radical Beauty

PDF Source: Raharivelomanana2018OCL.pdf | Radical Beauty

PDF Source: Role_of_Oxygen_Free_Radicals_in_Cancer_Development.pdf | Role of Oxygen Free Radicals in Cancer Development and Treatment

PDF Source: s43094-019-0014-9.pdf | In vitro free radical scavenging and antidiabetic activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts

PDF Source: scipharm-88-00027.pdf | Contribution of Topical Antioxidants to Maintain Healthy Skin

PDF Source: total-polyphenol-content-cornsilk.pdf | Total Polyphenol Content and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Cornsilk

PDF Source: UV-Free-Radicals.pdf | UV Generated Free Radicals (FR) in Skin and Hair

PDF Source: Vol3_Issue6_08.pdf | Phytochemical and free radical scavenging activity of Poorna chandrodayam chendooram

PDF Source: z4w111040s3179.pdf | Free Radicals: The Pros and Cons of Antioxidants

PDF Source: z4w111040s3201.pdf | Free Radicals: The Pros and Cons of Antioxidants

Email: greg@swissmixit.com