glycation :

Keywords: high-sugar diet, oxidative stress, oxidative damage, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus,advanced glycation end products, skin aging, photoaging, RAGE, AGEs,Aging, Glycation, Herbal products, Physical exercise,AGEs, dietary glycotoxins, dietary restriction, PCOS, MSR-1, RAGE,Glycation, Hyperglycemia, Polyphenols, Spices, Free radicals, Antioxidants,carnosine,carnosine, L-histidine, β-alanine, brain, cognition, treatment, psychiatry, neurology, nervous system,glycation, inhibitors of glycation, ageing,pancreatic cancer,Anti-Glycation, Glycation Reversing, Antioxidant Activity, Advanced Glycation End Products, diabetes complications, fenugreek, seed extract

Summary of Abstracts:

High-Sugar Diet Disrupts Hypothalamic but Not Cerebral Cortex Redox Homeostasis: Despite several reports on the relationship between metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, the effect of a high-sugar diet (HSD) on brain function is still unknown. The HSD was also responsible for the disruption of antioxidant systems and oxidative damage to blood proteins, but we did not show any correlation between systemic redox homeostasis and the brain levels. In summary, HSD is responsible for disorders of enzymatic antioxidant defenses only at the central (plasma/serum) and hypothalamic levels but does not affect the cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus is much more sensitive to oxidative damage caused by an HSD than the cerebral cortex.

Advanced glycation end products Key players in skin aging: I has been shown that skin collagen glycation positively correlates with blood glucose levels in diabetes and that intensive treatment can reduce the levels of skin glycation, implicating that a diet low in AGEs may have a beneficial effect on skin glycation.

The role of glycation in the pathogenesis of aging and its prevention through herbal products and physical exercise: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are non-enzymatic modifications of proteins or lipids after exposure to sugars. In this review, the glycation process and AGEs are introduced, and the harmful effects of AGEs in the aging process are discussed. Various herbal supplements or regular physical exercise have beneficial effects on glycemic control and oxidative stress with a consequent reduction of AGE accumulation during aging.

Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and a Practical Guide to Their Reduction in the Diet: Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidant stress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are generally AGE-rich and prone to new AGE formation during cooking. In contrast, carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk contain relatively few AGEs, even after cooking. The formation of new dAGEs during cooking was prevented by the AGE inhibitory compound aminoguanidine and significantly reduced by cooking with moist heat, using shorter cooking times, cooking at lower temperatures, and by use of acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or vinegar. However, accumulation of AGEs due to the systematic heating and processing of foods offers a new explanation for the adverse health effects associated with the Western diet, reaching beyond the question of over-nutrition. The use of acidic marinades, such as lemon juice and vinegar, before cooking can also be encouraged to limit dAGE generation. These culinary techniques have long been featured in Mediterranean, Asian, and other cuisines throughout the world to create palatable, easily prepared dishes. However, current data support the need for a paradigm shift that acknowledges that how we prepare and process food may be equally important as nutrient composition.

Current perspectives on the health risks associated with the consumption of advanced glycation end products: recommendations for dietary management: Evidence linking dietary glycotoxins to several disorders from diabetic complications and renal failure to liver dysfunction, female reproduction, eye and cognitive disorders as well as cancer.

Antioxidant and antiglycation activities correlate with phenolic composition of tropical medicinal herbs: Results imply that these plants are potential sources of natural antioxidants which have free radical scavenging activity and might be used for reducing oxidative stress. The positive glycation inhibitory and antioxidative activities of these tropical herbs suggest a possible role in targeting ageing, diabetic complications and oxidative stress related diseases.

Antioxidant and antiglycation properties of Hydnora johannis roots: Results showed that the ethanolic (70%) extract as well as isolated protocatechuic acid and catechin exhibited strong antioxidant and inhibitory effect of AGE formation. Thus, H. johannis roots with its high amount of protocatechuic acid (≈ 3.75 mg/100 g) and catechin (≈ 26.9 mg/100 g) could be a natural candidate for studies of herbal complement to diabetes treatment since it combines antioxidant and anti-AGE formation activities.

Antiglycation, antioxidant and toxicological potential of polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg from Nigeria: It can be concluded that the polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg displayed good antioxidant as well as antiglycation potential and are safe for consumption. Results obtained showed that polyphenol extract of ginger has the highest antioxidant potential with IC50 0.075 and 0.070 mg/mL for DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay while alligator pepper displayed highest antiglycation activity with IC50 0.125 mg/mL. However, nutmeg extract exhibited weakest cytotoxic and phytotoxic potential with LD50 4359.70 and 1490 µg/mL respectively.

The role of glycation in the pathogenesis of aging and its prevention through herbal products and physical exercise: Aging is defined as a progressive loss of the efficacy of biochem- ical and physiological processes that occur until death. A number of theories have been introduced to explain the aging process. One the- ory is that the abnormal accumulation of biological waste products in the organism is responsible for organ or tissues senescence. Glycation is a spontaneous non-enzymatic reaction of free reduc- ing sugars with free amino groups of proteins, DNA, and lipids that forms Amadori products. The Amadori products undergo a variety of irreversible dehydration and rearrangement reactions that lead to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This pro- cess was first introduced by Louis-Camille Maillard in 1912. The glycation process leads to a loss of protein function and impaired elasticity of tissues such as blood vessels, skin, and tendons. The glycation reaction is highly accelerated in the presence of hypergly- cemia and tissue oxidative stress. This implicates it in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and aging. Because there are no enzymes to remove glycated products from the human body, the glycation process matches well with the theory that the accumulation of metabolic waste promotes aging. Many previous reports have shown the ability of physical activity to improve glycemic control, with a consequent reduction of AGE accumulation in diabetic patients and during aging. In human subjects, life-long trained athletes had 21% lower contents of AGE cross-links in the patellar tendon compared to age-matched untrained subjects. Recently, we also showed the positive effect of regular exercise on the renal accumulation of AGEs. Specifically, regular exercise significantly prevented re- nal AGE deposition in D-galactose-induced aging rats. We suggest that inhibiting the glycation process and removing existing glycation products may prolong the lifespan. In this sense, dietary herbal supplements or physiological exercise may be distinctly ad- vantageous in reducing the burden of AGEs in our body.

Novel Facial Cream Containing Carnosine Inhibits Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products in Human Skin: Conclusion: Topically applied carnosine protects against the glycation induced by MG. Novel FC-CARN significantly reduced levels of AGEs in both epidermis and reticular dermis in human skin explants.

The Potential of Carnosine in Brain-Related Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of Current Evidence: Carnosine exerts its anti-oxidative actions indirectly through modulation of the endogenous anti-oxidant system as well as directly by decreasing the intracellular levels of reactive species, such as hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide, and cytotoxic carbonyl species. The effects of carnosine were reversed by inhibiting histidine decarboxylase (HDC) as well as histamine H1 and H3 antagonists, which suggests that carnosine’s neuroprotective mechanisms include not only the carnosine-histidine-histamine pathway, but also H1 and H3 receptors.

Topical application of L-arginine blocks advanced glycation by ascorbic acid in the lens of hSVCT2 transgenic mice: Conclusions: L-Arginine when applied both orally and topically is a potent and broad suppressor of advanced ascorbylation in the lens. Its uptake in rabbit lens upon topical application suggests transcorneal uptake into the human lens should be feasible for testing its potential anticataract properties in clinical trials. The above findings suggest that mice have the ability to take up L-arginine and N-acetylcysteine trans-corneally. L-arginine was the only compound able to significantly delay the accumulation of multiple AGEs. We tentatively attribute the ability of arginine to suppress AGE formation to its ability to scavenge oxoaldehydes such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, as well as DHA and its degradation products xylosone, erythrulose, and deoxythreosone. L-Arginine is an attractive drug for the potential delay of senile cataracts for multiple reasons. In summary, the above study confirms the in vivo potential of L-arginine as a blocking agent of carbonyl stress in the lens. In addition, our finding that topical application of NAC was potent at decreasing protein-bound fluorescence at 335/385 nm, and to some extent at 370/440 nm, suggests it might be useful as an adjuvant to L-arginine for combating combined carbonyl and oxidant stress in the pathogenesis of age-related nuclear cataracts.

Prevention of Protein Glycation by Natural Compounds: Non-enzymatic protein glycosylation (glycation) contributes to many diseases and aging of organisms. It can be expected that inhibition of glycation may prolong the lifespan. The search for inhibitors of glycation, mainly using in vitro models, has identified natural compounds able to prevent glycation, especially polyphenols and other natural antioxidants. Extrapolation of results of in vitro studies on the in vivo situation is not straightforward due to differences in the conditions and mechanism of glycation, and bioavailability problems. Nevertheless, available data allow to postulate that enrichment of diet in natural anti-glycating agents may attenuate glycation and, in consequence, ageing.

Oxidation, glycation and glycoxidation—The vicious cycle and lung cancer: The combine effect of oxidative and glycative stress predisposed to glycoxidation, and their outcomes that play critical role in lung cancer have been examined in different ways. Additionally, AGE-RAGE binding critically regulates the suppression and promotion of lung cancer via inhibition and activation of different signaling pathways. Hence, this review suggests the role of oxidation, glycation, and glycoxidation in lung cancer.

The Role of Receptors for Advanced Glycation End Product in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth-leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide that considered as the malignant tumor with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This extremely violent disease is rarely diagnosed at an early level and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. From this review, we can conclude that RAGE and its ligands have the crucial role in pancreatic carcinogenesis through up-regulation of some anti-apoptotic molecules.

Anti-Glycation and Glycation Reversing Potential of Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) Seed Extract: Seed extract of fenugreek had both anti-glycation and glycation reversing activities in BSA-glucose glycation model. Glycation reversing activity of fenugreek seed extract is a novel finding having therapeutic potentials. Thus, findings of this study indicate usefulness of fenugreek seed in managing advanced glycation end products associated pathologies in diabetes.

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