Oxidation

Oxidation : http://8swiss.com/oxidation/index.htm

KeyWords: Fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAODs), mitochondrial β-oxidation, hypoketotic hypoglycemia, carnitine, trifunctional protein, Fat oxidation, Substrate oxidation, Dietary fat oxidation, Crossover concept, Maximal fat oxidation, PDH activity, Fat adaptation, Ketogenic diet, Cpt-1, Carnitine, oxidative deterioration, hydroperoxide, volatile compounds, aldehydes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), analytical methods, free radicals, Aging, Antioxidants, Phenolic compounds, Skin aging, pro-oxidant, reducing power, cyclic voltammetry, oxidative damage markers

Description and Abstracts:

KeyWords: Fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAODs), mitochondrial β-oxidation, hypoketotic hypoglycemia, carnitine, trifunctional protein, Fat oxidation, Substrate oxidation, Dietary fat oxidation, Crossover concept, Maximal fat oxidation, PDH activity, Fat adaptation, Ketogenic diet, Cpt-1, Carnitine, oxidative deterioration, hydroperoxide, volatile compounds, aldehydes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), analytical methods, free radicals, Aging, Antioxidants, Phenolic compounds, Skin aging, pro-oxidant, reducing power, cyclic voltammetry, oxidative damage markers

Description and Abstracts:

Fatty acid β-oxidation is a major source of energy in the mitochondria; ultimately generating the reducing agents flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH+) to serve as electron donors to the respiratory chain for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP generation. Lipids are the substrate largely responsible for energy supply during submaximal exercise. Lipids as a fuel source for energy supply during submaximal exercise originate from subcutaneous adipose tissue derived fatty acids (FA), intramuscular triacylglycerides (IMTG), cholesterol and dietary fat. These sources of fat contribute to fatty acid oxidation (FAox) in various ways. The regulation and utilization of FAs in a maximal capacity occur primarily at exercise intensities between 45 and 65 percent VO2max, is known as maximal fat oxidation (MFO), and is measured in g/min. Fatty acid oxidation occurs during submaximal exercise intensities, but is also complimentary to carbohydrate oxidation (CHOox). Due to limitations within FA transport across the cell and mitochondrial membranes, FAox is limited at higher exercise intensities. The point at which FAox reaches maximum and begins to decline is referred to as the crossover point. Exercise intensities that exceed the crossover point (65 Percent VO2max) utilize CHO as the predominant fuel source for energy supply. Meat constituents are susceptible to degradation processes. Among them, the most important, after microbial deterioration, are oxidative processes, which affect lipids, pigments, proteins and vitamins. During these reactions a sensory degradation of the product occurs, causing consumer rejection. In addition, there is a nutritional loss that leads to the formation of toxic substances, so the control of oxidative processes is of vital importance for the meat industry. Free radicals are unstable chemical species, highly reactive, being formed by cellular entities of different tissues. Increased production of these species without proper effective action of endogenous and exogenous antioxidant systems, generates a condition of oxidative stress, potentially provider of skin disorders that extend from functional impairments (skin cancer, dermatitis, chronic and acute inflammatory processes) even aesthetic character, with the destruction of structural proteins and cellular changes with the appearance of stains, marks and lines of expressions and other signs inherent to the intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging process. Oxidative stress refers to the imbalance between free radicals and their stabilizing agent’s antioxidant enzymes in the body. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals can be produced by normal cellular metabolism and react with biomolecules like protein, lipid, and DNA to cause cellular damage and responsible for degenerative changes. Oxidative stress is closely related to all aspects of cancer, from carcino- genesis to the tumor-bearing state, from treatment to prevention. The human body is constantly under oxidative stress arising from exogenous origins (e.g., ultraviolet rays) and endogenous origins (at the cellular level where mitochondria are involved). When such oxidative stress exceeds the capacity of the oxidation-reduction system of the body, gene mutations may result or intracellular signal transduction and transcription factors may be affected directly or via antioxidants, leading to carcino- genesis. Lipid oxidation is a major cause of deterioration in the quality of food and food products. Oxidation can occur in both triglycerides and phospholipids of food because lipids are divided into two main classes; polar lipids (phospholipids) and neutral lipids (triglycerides). Lipid oxidation has been long been recognized as a major problem in the storage of fatty acids in foods. Cancer cells exhibit increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that may promote cell proliferation. Many phytochemicals have been implicated in combating oxidative stress-induced diseases such as cancer and other chronic disorders. Many of these phytochemicals have the power to inhibit cell proliferation and also to suppress the promotion and progression of cancer. Phytochemicals like flavonoids inhibit the oxidative enzymes such as 5-lipoxygenase and 12-lipoxygenase. Terpenoids, another class of phytochemicals, suppress tumor growth by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase activity. Many cosmetics that are marketed nowadays often contain antioxidants as the active ingredients. It is known that oxidation reactions could produce free radicals, which can start chain reactions that will damage skin cells. Increasing the amount of free radicals could initiate the wrinkling, photoaging, elastosis, drying, and pigmentation of the skin. Topical antioxidants could terminate the chain reactions by removing the free radical intermediates and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves; this could defend the skin against the environmental stress caused by free radicals. It is well known that plants can produce natural antioxidant compounds that could control the oxidative stress caused by sunlight and oxygen. The cosmetic formulations usually contain various combinations of many plant extracts, for example, green tea, rosemary, grape seed, basil grape, blueberry, tomato, acerola seed, pine bark, and milk thistle. These plants extracts contain natural antioxidants, that is, polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, stilbens, and terpenes (including carotenoids and essential oils). Topical vitamin C has a wide range of clinical applications, from antiaging and antipigmentary to photoprotective. Currently, clinical studies on the efficacy of topical formulations of vitamin C remain limited, and the challenge lies in finding the most stable and permeable formulation in achieving the optimal results. Topical application of vitamin C has an established history of use in skincare. A large body of literature from clinical and laboratory studies supports a scientific basis for its use in improving both the appearance and health of the skin. Enzyme Browning is a usual phenomenon that can be observed commonly in fruits and vegetables, which results in quality loss of the food including the change in colour, taste, flavor and nutritional value. This occurs when the phenolic compounds present in them react with Polyphenol oxidase (type III copper enzyme). The phenolic compounds are oxidized to their quinone derivatives and further oxidized to form melanin pigment, found in living beings, is responsible for the browning reaction. Oxidative stress is caused by imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) not only cause cell damage, but are also involved in intracellular signaling. ROS include superoxide (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (OH-) and peroxynitrite. Oxidative stress occurs when the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and detoxification favors an increase in ROS levels, leading to disturbed cellular function. ROS causes damage to cellular macromolecules causing lipid peroxidation, nucleic acid, and protein alterations. Their formation is considered as a pathobiochemical mechanism involved in the initiation or progression phase of various diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemic heart diseases, diabetes, and initiation of carcinogenesis or liver diseases. Oxidative stress is well known to be involved in the pathogenesis of lifestyle-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic diseases, and malignancies. Oxidative stress has been defined as harmful because oxygen free radicals attack biological molecules such as lipids, pro- teins, and DNA. However, oxidative stress also has a useful role in physiologic adaptation and in the regulation of intracellular signal transduction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other radicals are involved in a variety of biological phenomena, such as mutation, carcinogenesis, degenerative and other diseases, in􏰝flammation, aging, and development. ROS are well recognized for playing a dual role as deleterious and bene􏰜ficial species.


PDF Source: 0101-2061-cta-1678-457X03216.pdf | Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from purslane

PDF Source: 01926230290166724.pdf | Oxidation of Biological Systems: Oxidative Stress Phenomena, Antioxidants, Redox Reactions, and Methods for Their Quanti􏰜cation

PDF Source: 022110563.pdf | Antioxidants and Skin Aging

PDF Source: 12970_2018_Article_207.pdf | Understanding the factors that effect maximal fat oxidation

PDF Source: 13278156.pdf | Oxidation Processes with biological treatment for the remediation of water polluted with herbicides

PDF Source: 13278157.pdf | COMBINATION OF ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

PDF Source: 153415721.pdf | Determination of the stability of cosmetic formulations with incorporation of natural products

PDF Source: 2308.pdf | A Standardized Method For Extraction of Lipids and Oxidation Characterization of Retrieved UHMWPE Components

PDF Source: 271_276.pdf | A Standardized Method For Extraction of Lipids and Oxidation Characterization of Retrieved UHMWPE Components

PDF Source: 324143769.pdf | PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE FROM THERMOPHILIC

PDF Source: 35961.pdf | Oxidative Therapy Against Cancer

PDF Source: 535_539.pdf | Cancer and Oxidative Stress

PDF Source: 53ddcb8417290f6b39f7097e760efb8bce9d.pdf | LIPID OXIDATION

PDF Source: 9_Ericlipidoxidationreview.pdf | Biological Implications of Lipid Oxidation Products

PDF Source: _20201019-swissmixit-pdf-search-library-methodology.pdf | SwissMixIt Methodology

PDF Source: abd-92-03-0367.pdf | An overview about oxidation in clinical practice of skin aging

PDF Source: antioxidants-08-00429.pdf | Comprehensive Review on Lipid Oxidation in Meat and Meat Products

PDF Source: antioxidants-09-00231-v3.pdf | Evaluating the In Vitro Potential of Natural Extracts to Protect Lipids from Oxidative Damage

PDF Source: antioxidants-09-01071.pdf | Taurine Enhances Iron-Related Proteins and Reduces Lipid Peroxidation in Differentiated C2C12 Myotubes

PDF Source: atm-06-24-473.pdf | Fatty acid oxidation disorders

PDF Source: biochemj00611-0072.pdf | Intermediates in Fatty Acid Oxidation

PDF Source: biochemj00802-0034.pdf | INHIBITION OF GLYCOLYSIS BY MALONATE

PDF Source: biochemj01103-0116.pdf | THE OXIDATION OF PALMITIC ACID, BY MEANS OF HYDROGEN DIOXIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF A CUPRIC SALT

PDF Source: biomolecules-05-00545.pdf | Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin

PDF Source: biomolecules-09-00735.pdf | Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Cancer Progression

PDF Source: Birgitte_s_thesis_final_version.pdf | Lipid oxidation in skincare products

PDF Source: bk-1992-0500-ch001.pdf | Lipid Oxidation in Foods

PDF Source: brjcancer00157-0077b.pdf | Randomized Trials in Cancer

PDF Source: brjclinpharm00123-0044.pdf | Randomized Trials in Cancer

PDF Source: cancers-12-03214.pdf | Novel Herbal Cocktail AGA Alleviates Oral Cancer through Inducing Apoptosis

PDF Source: carbon-06-00070.pdf | Microwave Plasma Formation of Nanographene and Graphitic Carbon Black

PDF Source: polyphenol-oxidase.pdf | Polyphenol oxidase beyond enzyme Browning

PDF Source: cia-13-757.pdf | Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases

PDF Source: cia-2-377.pdf | Effects of antioxidant supplementation on the aging process

PDF Source: cosmetics-05-00011.pdf | Essential Oils and Their Single Compounds in Cosmetics

PDF Source: defensive-roles-polyphenol-oxidase-plants.pdf | Defensive Roles of Polyphenol Oxidase in Plants

PDF Source: envhper00361-0024.pdf | Oxidation Reduction Reactions of Metal Ions

PDF Source: foods-09-01572-v2.pdf | Pectin-Based Films with Cocoa Bean Shell Waste Extract and ZnO/Zn-NPs with Enhanced Oxygen Barrier

PDF Source: foods-09-01630-v2.pdf | Characteristics and Antioxidant Potential of Cold-Pressed Oils

PDF Source: foods-09-01647-v2.pdf | Effect of an Olive Vegetation Water Phenolic Extract on the Physico-Chemical, Microbiological and Sensory Traits of Shrimp

PDF Source: FormulationandStabilityofAscorbicAcidinTopicalPreparations.pdf | Formulation and Stability of Ascorbic Acid in Topical Preparations

PDF Source: IAS_15_2_55_63.pdf | BALANCE BETWEEN OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM DURING DEVELOPMENT

PDF Source: ijms-18-00377-v2.pdf | Polyphenol Oxidases in Crops: Biochemical, Physiological and Genetic Aspects

PDF Source: ijms-18-01544.pdf | Correlation between Oxidative Stress, Nutrition, and Cancer Initiation

PDF Source: Impact_of_extraction_method_on_yield_of_oxidation_.pdf | Impact of extraction method on yield of oxidation products from oxidized and unoxidized walnuts

PDF Source: JABB-06-00173.pdf | Oxidative stress and antioxidant mechanisms in human body

PDF Source: jcad_10_7_14.pdf | topical vitamin C on the skin

PDF Source: Kumar2009.pdf | Stabilization of Interferon alpha 2b in a Topical Cream

PDF Source: Lecture12_oxidation.pdf | Mechanisms of Oxidation and Corrosion

PDF Source: Link_6_Lipids_oxidation_and_monitoring.pdf | Lipids oxidation and monitoring

PDF Source: LipidOxidationand Quality_Abstracts.pdf | LIPID OXIDATION AND QUALITY

PDF Source: mechanisms-of-anti-oxidants.pdf | Mechanisms of Antioxidants in the Oxidation of Foods

PDF Source: metabolites-10-00436-v2.pdf | Metabolomics Study of Serum from a Chronic Alcohol

PDF Source: metabolites-10-00453.pdf | Electrophile Modulation of Inflammation

PDF Source: Modern-cosmetics-book.pdf | MODERN COSMETICS INGREDIENTS OF NATURAL ORIGIN A SCIENTIFIC VIEW

PDF Source: molecules-23-01571.pdf | Cosmetics Preservation

PDF Source: molecules-24-03517.pdf | Antioxidant, Anti-Aging and Organ Protective Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Flammulina velutipes

PDF Source: molecules-25-01157.pdf | haracterization of the Lipid Oxidation Process of Robusta Green Coffee Beans and Shelf Life Prediction

PDF Source: molecules-25-05053-v2.pdf | Lipid Droplets as Organelles for Protein and Lipid Storage in Cellular Stress Response, Aging and Disease

PDF Source: molecules-25-05144.pdf | Targeting Lipid Peroxidation for Cancer Treatment

PDF Source: molecules-25-05160.pdf | Antioxidant Properties of Lyophilized Rosemary and Sage Extracts and its Effect to Prevent Lipid Oxidation

PDF Source: molecules-25-05166.pdf | Recent Advances in Synthesis, Bioactivity, and Pharmacokinetics of Pterostilbene, an Important Analog of Resveratrol

PDF Source: ncomms7907.pdf | Amplification of oxidative stress by a dual stimuli-responsive hybrid drug enhances cancer cell death

PDF Source: nihms236168.pdf | Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: How are they linked

PDF Source: nutrients-12-03392.pdf | Anti-Obesity Effects of a Prunus persica and Nelumbo nucifera Mixture

PDF Source: nutrients-12-03473.pdf | What Should I Eat before Exercise Pre-Exercise Nutrition and the Response to Endurance Exercise

PDF Source: oral-topical-melasma.pdf | New oral and topical approaches for the treatment of melasma

PDF Source: oxidation-stability-of-face-cream-206257.pdf | Oxidation Stability of Face cream

PDF Source: Oxidation_of_Lipids_in_Foods.pdf | Oxidation of Lipids in Foods

PDF Source: Oxidation_States_and_Ionicity.pdf | Oxidation States and Ionicity

PDF Source: OxidationandReduction-TooManyDefinitions.pdf | Oxidation and Reduction

PDF Source: oxidative-stress-and-anti-oxidants.pdf | Oxidative stress and antioxidants

PDF Source: oxidative-stress-and-cancer-role-of-anticarcinogenic-herbs-and-spices.pdf | Oxidative Stress and Cancer: Role of Anti Carcinogenic Herbs and Spices

PDF Source: Oxidative_Stress_and_Aging.pdf | Oxidative Stress and Aging

PDF Source: pharmaceuticals-13-00380.pdf | Germinated Soybean Embryo Extract Ameliorates Fatty Liver Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese

PDF Source: pharmaceutics-12-00151.pdf | Evaluation of Formulation Parameters on Permeation of Ibuprofen from Topical Formulations

PDF Source: PIIS0960982209011890.pdf | The Continuing Puzzle of the Great Review Oxidation Event

PDF Source: PIIS1535610818302241.pdf | ROS Promotes Cancer Cell Survival through Calcium Signaling

PDF Source: processes-08-01412.pdf | Phenolics Dynamics and Infrared Fingerprints during the Storage of Pumpkin Seed Oil and Thereof Oleogel

PDF Source: ReCverinAbsorptionStudyPDF.pdf | Topical Dehydroascorbic Acid (Oxidized Vitamin C) Permeates Stratum Corneum

PDF Source: redox-directed-cancer-therapeutics.pdf | Redox-Directed Cancer Therapeutics: Molecular Mechanisms and Opportunities

PDF Source: RedOx_Rxns.pdf | Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

PDF Source: s41598-019-43645-1.pdf | evaluation of lipid oxidation mechanisms in beverages and cosmetics via analysis of lipid hydroperoxide isomers

PDF Source: scipharm-88-00027.pdf | Contribution of Topical Antioxidants to Maintain Healthy Skin

PDF Source: SolveneffectonODS.pdf | Solvent Effects During Oxidation-Extraction Desulfurization Process

PDF Source: suschem-01-00019.pdf | Biocatalyzed Sulfoxidation in Presence of Deep Eutectic Solvents

PDF Source: sustainability-12-09029-v2.pdf | Environmental Impact of Fresh Tomato Production in an Urban Rooftop Greenhouse in a Humid Continental Climate

PDF Source: Tesis.pdf | ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED MIXING BY NATURAL AND FORCED CONVECTION WITH APPLICATION TO CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN

PDF Source: ucalgary_2018_somathilake_madduma.pdf | Photochemical, UV and Ozone Based Advanced Oxidation Processes for Treatment of Aqueous Contaminants

PDF Source: v054p00176.pdf | Antioxidants in health and disease

PDF Source: water-11-00205.pdf | Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes for the Treatment of Recalcitrant Agro-Industrial wastewater

Email: greg@swissmixit.com