This section SwissMixIt is to provide research and references for botanical extractions and formulations.

Essential Oil Publications:

This index of publications includes herbal medicinals, essential oils, and formulating natural skin products.

Bio-Based Solvents for Botanical Extraction:

This index of publications includes methods of eco extraction for botanicals.

Anti Aging and Reversing the Effects of Aging:

This index of publications includes techniques and methods to slow, prevent, and reverse the effects of aging.

Medicinal Plants:

Publications of medicinal plants from around the world.

Tamanu Oil:

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nut oil from French Polynesia.


Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.

Amla | Gooseberry | (Phyllanthus emblica) Emblica officinalis Gaertn:

Gooseberry (Amla) is the highest rated antioxidant on the plant list and a nutritional powerhouse. Includes a host of phytonutrients, including flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin), anthocyanins, aromatic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, coumaric, hydroxybenzoic, and ellagic acid), and organic acids.

Oregano | Origanum vulgare:

Oregano is an amazing herb and essential oil. It has well documented positive health effects, and is also know for its anti-bacterial qualities. It contains phytonutrients (thymol and carvacrol), that fight infections such as staph. Oregano is also loaded with antioxidants that help prevent cell damage, and an excellent source of fiber, vitamin K, manganese, iron, vitamin E, tryptophan and calcium.

Black Seed (Nigella sativa, black cumin, caraway, Kalonji):

Popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. Has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. Black Seed has also been in research for COVID-19 treatment (). Keywords: thymoquinone, Miracle herb, Ranunculaceae, Habat-ul-Sauda, Thymoquinone, Tibb-e-Nabwi, Black seeds, Anti-diabetic, Antioxidant


Honey contains phytochemicals, flavonoids, catalase, phenolic acids, ascorbic acid, antibiotic-rich inhibine, tocopherols, and peptides, and most of these substances work in synergy to provide its beneficial effects. Natural honey include proteins, amino acids, enzymes (amylase, catalase, invertase, oxidase), and vitamins (including niacin, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid), as well as minerals (mainly calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and zinc.

Olive Oil:

KeyWords: extra virgin olive oil, polyphenol content, fatty acids, nutrigenomics, human health
Description: Olive oil is very high in monounsaturated fats and contains a modest amount of vitamins E and K. True extra virgin olive oil is loaded with antioxidants, some of which have powerful health benefits.


Keywords: Vanilla, tahitensis, food metabolomics, phenolics, traceability, authenticity
Description: Vanilla is a flavoring recovered from the cured beans of the orchid genus Vanilla. Vanilla ×tahitensis is traditionally cultivated on the islands of French Polynesia, where vanilla vines were first introduced during the nineteenth century and, since the 1960s, have been introduced to other Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), cultivated and sold as “Tahitian vanilla,” although both sensory properties and aspect are different.


Keywords: cacao,Theobroma cacao
Description: seeds from a small tropical American evergreen tree, from which cocoa, cocoa butter, and chocolate are made. Chocolate comes from cocoa, which comes from processing cocao.Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. Cocoa is a rich source of high-quality antioxidant polyphenols. In moderately photo-aged women, regular cocoa flavanol consumption had positive effects on facial wrinkles and elasticity. Cocoa flavanol supplementation may contribute to the prevention of the progression of photo-aging.

Insulin Resistance:

Keywords: Insulin resistance, Hyperinsulinemia, Metabolism, Cardiovascular disease, Dyslipidemia, adipose tissue expandability, inflammation,lipotoxicity, skin tags, Fatty acids, Palmitic acid, Omega-3 fatty acids, Hypothalamus, Adipose tissue, Liver, Muscle, Endotoxemia
Description: Highlights of publications… Insulin resistance is when cells in your muscles, fat, and liver don’t respond well to insulin and can’t easily take up glucose from your blood. As a result, your pancreas makes more insulin to help glucose enter your cells. Lots of blood sugar in the bloodstream is very damaging to the body and needs to be moved into cells as soon as possible. There’s lots of insulin, too, telling the liver and muscles to store blood sugar. When they’re full, the liver sends the excess blood sugar to fat cells to be stored as body fat. Yep, weight gain. And what’s more serious, the stage is set for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Apple polyphenols could represent a novel nutritional approach in the management and control of blood glucose, especially in type 2 diabetics. Capsaicin per se or its combination with moderate exercise could be a useful therapy against complications linked to obesity-insulin resistance in hypoestrogenic females. Recent evidence has strengthened the proposed synergistic relationship between obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer.
Serum Fatty Acid Profiling within Distinct Lipid Fractions Provides a More Robust Indicator of Insulin Resistance in Humans than Total Triglyceride and Fatty Acid Profiles. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) was known as hypoglycemic agent in both types of diabetes. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) might have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetic complications. Nigella sativa seeds are traditionally reputed as possessing anti-diabetic properties. Seed spices have a diverse array of natural phytochemicals that have complementary and overlapping actions, including antioxidant effects, Anticancer, Antidiabetic, Antimicrobial Activity, Hypolipidemic effect, Insecticidal, useful in menstrual disorders, helping in digestion, Modulation of hypertension, detoxification enzymes, reduction of inflammation, modulation of steroid metabolism, stimulation of immune system and helps in improve other several human disorder.


Keywords: curcumin, turmeric,antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor activity, polyphenol,molecular docking, inflammatory skin diseases, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, iatrogenic dermatitis, wound care, skin aging, skin cancer, skin infections, cosmetic formulation
Description and Highlights of the Research Links: Turmeric, a spice that has long been recognized for its medicinal properties, has received interest from both the medical/scientific world and from culinary enthusiasts, as it is the major source of the polyphenol curcumin. It aids in the management of oxidative and inflammatory conditions, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, anxiety, and hyperlipidemia. It may also help in the management of exercise-induced inflammation and muscle soreness, thus enhancing recovery and performance in active people. Piperine is the major active component of black pepper and, when combined in a complex with curcumin, has been shown to increase bioavailability by 2000%. Curcumin combined with enhancing agents provides multiple health benefits.
First shown to have anti-bacterial activity in 1949, curcumin has since been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, pro-apoptotic, chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic, anti-proliferative, wound healing, anti-nociceptive, anti- parasitic, and anti-malarial properties as well.
The flowers of curcuma longa contains a significant amount of curcumin, antioxidant activity and phenol contents.
Curcumin scavenges the superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, and inhibits lipid peroxidation. These actions may be the basis for many of its pharmacological and therapeutic properties.
Curcumin’s antiinflammatory effects and apparent effectiveness in keeping Alzheimer’s disease at bay are attracting the notice of more and more medical researchers.
The activity of curcumin reported against leukemia and lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancers, genitourinary cancers, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, melanoma, neurological cancers, and sarcoma reflects its ability to affect multiple targets.
Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging potential of curcumin limits the risk of lipid peroxidation that triggers inflammatory responses causing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and atherosclerosis. Taken together, curcumin could be used as a safe and well-tolerated adjunct to statins to control hyperlipidaemia more effectively than statins alone.
Curcumin and curcumin-rich Curcuma longa L. extract promoted recovery from CCl4-induced hepatic toxicity in both stress conditions. For both stress-associated hepatic dyslipidemia, curcumin and Curcuma longa L. extract might be recommendable to recover liver activity.
Anticancer activity of curcumin is due to negative regulation of inflammatory cytokines, transcription factors, protein kinases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oncogenes.
While the effectiveness of oral curcumin is hindered by its low bioavailability and poor absorption by the oral route, this is not the case for topical curcumin. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms for its anti-infl ammatory and anti-apoptotic activity based on its inhibitory activity on the enzyme, phosphorylase kinase, and present evidence for its salutary effects on burns, wounds, surgical scars, photo-damaged skin and psoriasis.
An increasing amount of evidence suggests that curcumin may represent an effective agent in the treatment of several skin conditions.
The formulations developed in this study enabled penetration of curcumin limited to the superficial layers of the skin and then possibly without a risk of systemic action, thus permitting local use as a topical anti-inflammatory.
Curcuminoids obtained from Curcuma longa have properties like photoprotection, antiaging, anti-wrinkle, moisturizing, antioxidant, astringent, anti-irritant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.
Curcumin enhances the anticancer effect of 5-FU against gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo. The possible molecular mechanism may be, at least in part, related to down-regulation of COX-2 and NF-κB pathways.
In vitro studies with RPE cells show the treatment significantly reduces oxidative stress in cells while increasing cell viability, thus indicating that curcumin has potential to both treat and prevent age related macular degeneration (AMD).


Keywords: Capsaicin, obesity, TRPV1, Capsaicinoids,nerve growth factor, neuropathic pain, nociceptor, Cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, Metabolic syndrome, Red pepper, Antioxidant activity, Multivariate analysis

Description and Highlights: Active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. Capsaicin, the phytochemical responsible for the spiciness of peppers, has the potential to modulate metabolism.
The increased expression of UCP2 induced by TRPV1 activation exerts a protective antioxidant effect on the liver in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and on vascular endothelium in the context of hyperglycaemia.
Capsaicin consumption reduce body weight and its potential mechanisms of its anti-obesity effects.
Topical capsaicin formulations are used for pain management.
Red pepper as well as capsaicin has ability to control of metabolic syndrome and its related disorders such as obesity, disrupted lipid profile, diabetes and its complications.
Hot peppers are known to be a good source of phenolic compounds, including flavonoids and capsai- cinoids, as well as ascorbic acid. These phytochemicals show high antioxidant activity, and their consumption has been linked to a decreased risk of developing chronic and degenerative diseases.
Capsaicin exhibits strong anti‐cancer properties in various cancer types. The combination of capsaicin with conventional chemotherapy drugs or radiotherapy can improve the sensitivity, reduce the side effects and enhance the tolerance of patients to cancer treatment. The development of capsaicin‐loaded nanoparticles may provide a very promising approach to chemotherapy for malignant tumours.
This evidence suggests that dietary factors that act as antioxidants to increase GSH level may contribute to a protective effect against age related diseases. This antioxidant effect may, in part, explain the high consumption of capsicum in certain regions of the world.


Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Cinnamon, Fasting blood glucose, Glycosylated haemoglobin, Blood pressure, Body composition,Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Impaired fasting glucose, Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), Coumarins, Glycaemic control, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity,

Description and highlights: Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savory dishes, breakfast cereals, snackfoods, tea and traditional foods.
A single supplement intervention with 3 g cinnamon for 16 weeks resulted in significant improvements in all components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of Asian Indians in north India. Decrease in fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglycerides.
It can be concluded that the cinnamon extract proved effective in reducing the lipid oxidation of palm oil and it can be successfully used in place of synthetic antioxidants in food preparations.
The significant antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of both oils suggest that it could serve as a source of compounds with preservative phenomenon.
The available in vitro and animal in vivo evidence suggests that cinnamon has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, cardiovascular, cholesterol-lowering, and immunomodulatory effects.
Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.
Study demonstrates the 3 percent cinnamon extract can be used to formulate an antioxidant rich butter and it can be placed as a natural preservative for preparation of butter.
Cinnamomum cassia can act as a hypocholesterolemic agent and thereby can improve cardiovascular functions.
Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of diverse cancers.

Research List:

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon)
Lycium fruit (Lycium chinense, L. barbarum) Elderberry fruit or solid extract (Sambucus nigra) Buddleia Flower (Buddleia officinalis)
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) Black tea
Black Currant fruit (Ribes spp.)
Turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa)


Insulin Resistance

The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide.

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Abstract: The Antioxidant Food Table. A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies.

Title: The total antioxidant content of more than 3,100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide.

Authors: MH Carlsen, BL Halvorsen, K Holte, SK Bøhn, S Dragland, L Sampson, C Willey, H Senoo, Y Umezono, C Sanada, I Barikmo, N Behre, WC Willett, KM Phillips, DR Jacobs JR and R Blomhoff.


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Publications for botanical extraction and formulation including sources and medicinal qualities of plant based sources.

Herbs which may provide potential for treating COVID-19:

Every day we researching herbs and their medicinal effect for my SwissMixIt. The goal of SwissMixIt is to provide a mixer to make DIY at-home topical solutions for skin care. 

Black Seed is one of those herbal sources that has some interesting promise, specifically with COVID-19.

Summary of “Potential benefits of combination of Nigella sativa and Zn supplements to T treat COVID-19” Source:

Having a range of bioactive components such as thymoquinone and nigellimine, black seed might offer a number of benefits to treat COVID- 19 such as (i) blocking the entry of the virus into pneumocytes and (ii) providing ionophore for enhanced uptake of Zn2+ which in turn can enhance host immune response against SARS-CoV-2 as well as inhibit its replication by blocking the viral RdRp.

Summary of “Prophetic Medicine-Nigella Sativa (Black Cumin Seeds) – Potential Herb for COVID-19” Source:

Various randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, case reports and in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that N.sativa has antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, im- munomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, anti- tussive activities related to causative oraganism and signs and symptoms of COVID-19. In addition, N.sativa has also shown anti-hypertensive, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, an- ti-hyperlipidemic, anti-ulcer, and antineoplastic activities which would help the COVID-19 patients with comorbid conditions. Moreover, the active constituents of N. sativa such as nigellidine and α-hederin have been identified as potential inhibitor of SARS CoV-2. N. sativa could be used as an adjuvant therapy along with repurposed conventional drugs to manage the patients with COVID-19.