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Electromagnetic Field Exposure during the Use of Portable Radios in the Context of Potential Health Effects

Keywords: emf, portable radio, biomedical engineering, environmental engineering, numerical simulations, radiofrequency sensor, occupational exposure, public health, specific energy absorption rate (SAR), wearables, wireless sensor networks (WSN), risk awareness, mobile phone, knowledge level of RF-EMF, uncontrollability, hierarchical multiple regression analysis, risk cognition map, 2.45 GHz, Wi-Fi, genotoxic effect, gene expression, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), RT-PCR, mobile communication, EMF exposure, 5G, base stations, RF EMF compliance, massive MIMO, antenna arrays, beamforming, Electromagnetic field, Radiofrequency, Brain, Central nervous system, Stress, Neuron, Electromagnetic fields (EMFs), Reproduction system, Antioxidants, brain cancer, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, glioma, non-cancer outcomes, policy recommendations, radiofrequency fields, child development, acoustic neuroma, ELF‐EMF, Corticosterone, Cholesterol, Fatty acids,

Summary of Abstracts:

Assessment of the Electromagnetic Field Exposure during the Use of Portable Radios in the Context of Potential Health Effects The paper presents research on the electromagnetic hazards related to the flow of electric currents throughout the bodies of employees using portable radios. The head of the operator and the hand holding the radio were often in the electromagnetic field (EMF), which exceeded the established limits. The calculated SAR values ranged within the permitted limits. The conducted neurophysiological tests showed no effects of EMF exposure in comparison to the control group. The assessment of exposure to the EMF using a portable radio is initially performed by analyzing external measures: both computer simulations and measurements of workers’ limb currents. The SAR values exclude thermal effects; however, they do not eliminate potential neuromuscular effects. More neurophysiological tests are needed to obtain a broader picture of possible health effects.

Modelling the Influence of the 2.4 GHz Electromagnetic Field on the User of a Wearable Internet of Things (IoT) Device for Monitoring Hazards in the Work Environment The aim was to test the hypothesis that there is an insignificant influence on humans from the absorption of an 2.4 GHz electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by wearable Internet of Things (IoT) devices (using Meandered Inverted-F Antenna (MIFA) for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies) for monitoring hazards in the work environment.

Short ELF-EMF Exposure Targets SIRT1/Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling in THP-1 Cells Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) have been known to modulate inflammatory responses by targeting signal transduction pathways and influencing cellular redox balance through the generation of oxidants and antioxidants.

The Relationship between Risk Perception of Cell Phones and Objective Knowledge of EMF in Korea This study examines differences between the level of objective knowledge regarding radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and risk perception of cell phones in Korea. We also investigate the extent to which socio-demographic factors, perceived EMF exposure, objective knowledge regarding EMF, and psychological factors influence the risk perception of cell phones using hierarchical multiple regression.

Human Fibroblasts In Vitro Exposed to 2.45 GHz Continuous and Pulsed Wave Signals: Evaluation of Biological Effects with a Multimethodological Approach The increasing exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), especially from wireless communication devices, raises questions about their possible adverse health effects. The evaluation of the potential biological effects was carried out through a multimethodological approach, including classical biological markers (genotoxic, cell cycle, and ultrastructural) and the evaluation of gene expression profile through the powerful high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approach. Our results suggest that 2.45 GHz radiofrequency fields did not induce significant biological effects at a cellular or molecular level for the evaluated exposure parameters and conditions.

Analysis of the Actual Power and EMF Exposure from Base Stations in a Commercial 5G Network In this work, monitoring of the transmit power for several base stations operating in a live 5G network (Telstra, Australia) was conducted with the purpose of analyzing the radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure levels. The results show that assuming peak power transmission in a fixed beam for a long-time interval leads to unrealistic exposure levels. This translates into a compliance distance that is less than half than what is obtained for the theoretical maximum EIRP. These findings are consistent with the assessments made by the International Electrotechnical Commission in [15] and provide useful insights for the development of RF EMF exposure assessment procedures of 5G BSs.

Health effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF EMF) Recent technological development made the natural electromagnetic environment affected by man-made sources of EMF. People are exposed to man-made EMF both in their occupational environments and in everyday life. Most common technology-related EMF include radiofrequency (RF) EMF, i.e. radiowaves and microwaves (100 kHz–300 GHz), and power frequency EMF (50, 60 Hz). RF-emitting devices are extensively used in industry (welding machines, induction heaters), telecommunication (TV and radio broadcast stations), medicine (NMR, diathermy), and in everyday life (microwave ovens, mobile phones and 5G—the newest generation of mobile communication). The problem of health effects of RF EMF has not been definitively resolved, but due to the results of previous research on possible health effect of RF EMF, it seems necessary to use precautionary principles and ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principles, when the new sources of electromagnetic emissions will be planned and installed.

Possible Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Central Nerve System Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological response to RF-EMF in consideration of the comprehensive exposure with regard to the use of various devices by individuals. An epidemiological study claimed that using cell phones for one hour a day for more than 10 years could increase the risk of tumors (Hardell et al., 2007). In addition, cell phone users have an increased risk of malignant gliomas, particularly those with acoustic neuromas. Moreover, many studies have reported associations between RF-EMF and brain tumors (Myung et al., 2009; Swerdlow et al., 2011; Repacholi et al., 2012). Genetic toxic effects, including aneuploidy, can lead to genetic disorders with abnormal gene formation, and can even lead to cancer (Hoeijmakers, 2009). Recently, with regard to the effect of RF-EMFs on cognitive function, it has been found that exposure induced the improvement in cognitive behavior of triple transgenic mice (3xTg-AD), that have a cognitive impairment such as in human Alzheimer’s disease (Banaceur et al., 2013). Research by the National Institutes of Health has reported that RF-EMFs emitted from mobile phones activates metabolic processes in the human brain (Volkow et al., 2011). Glucose metabolism in the brains that were exposed to RF-EMF increased rapidly. In addition to changes in genes, proteins, and proliferation in nerve cells exposed to RF-EMF, physiological changes in cell membranes and ion channels at cellular levels have been reported (Pall, 2013; Buckner et al., 2015). Changes in cell membranes and ion channels induce alterations in the electrical activity of neurons, and these changes stimulate or inhibit neuronal activity through interaction with voltage-gated ion channels (Nanou and Catterall, 2018). Although there is no direct evidence that these results from experimental animals show the same results in humans, exposure to RF-EMFs can cause changes in the expression and activity of ion channels, particularly in children. Further follow-up studies are needed to clarify the exact correlation with the changes in the expression and the activity of ion channels in neurons (Birks et al., 2017, 2018). Moreover, the use of smartphones has increased not only in adulthood, but also in youth and elderly people including young children. Therefore, there are increasing concerns about the possible biological effects of electromagnetic fields liberated from electronic devices including smart phones. However, there is a lack of information on the possible effects of artificial electromagnetic fields on living organisms liberated from the use of such devices and equipment.

A review on Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the reproductive system Environmental factors, such as electromagnetic waves, induce biological and genetic effects. One of the most important physiological systems involved with electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is the genital system.

Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Organs and Tissues RF radiation is reported to affect isolated nerve preparations, the central nervous system, brain chemistry and histology, and the blood-brain barrier. In general, the lowest thresholds for cataract induction have been observed with near-field exposure at 1-10 GHz, and a power density greater than 100 mW/cm2 applied for at least an hour is required. Most of the evidence indicates that the mechanism of injury leading to lens opacity is thermal, and pulsed and CW microwave fields appear to have similar thresholds for producing cataracts. At frequencies where the wavelength of the RF field is not well matched to the dimensions of the eye, cataracts are not produced even at extremely high power densities approaching the lethal levels. Although it is difficult to extrapolate results from laboratory animals to humans, the threshold power density required to produce cataracts is expected to be similar in rabbits and humans because of the structural similarities and comparable dimensions of the eyes in these species. Results of recent studies with monkeys have indicated that vascular leakage can increase at relatively low power densities of pulsed 2.45-GHz radiation when the eye is pretreated with timolol maleate, which decreases intraocular pressure by reducing the production of aqueous humor. A power density as low as 1 mW/cm2, corresponding to an intraocular SAR of 0.26 W/kg, has been observed to produce the effect. Those findings might have implications for RF ocular damage in humans being treated with timolol maleate for glaucoma. However, the threshold power density at 2.45 GHz is still well in excess of the intensity of the RF fields produced by GWEN antennae in areas accessible to the general public. A visual phenomenon associated with exposure to ELF fields that has been studied for nearly a century is the induction of a flickering illumination known as phosphenes. Time-varying magnetic fields with either pulsed or sinusoidal waveforms and frequencies below 100 Hz have been shown to produce phosphenes when the time rate of change of the field exceeds 1.3 T/sec.30 The frequency most likely to produce magnetophosphenes with sinusoidal fields is 20 Hz; the threshold flux density for eliciting the visual effect is 8 mT. Effects of RF-field exposure on cellular components of the immune system have been reported with both in vitro and in vivo test systems. It appears from available information that the threshold SAR for altering lymphocyte responses to mitogens exceeds 4 W/kg with both pulsed and CW microwaves. Thermogenic levels of exposure have been found to decrease natural killer cell activity and to activate macrophages. Acute human exposures to ELF electric fields up to 200 kV/m and magnetic fields up to 5 mT have also failed to show any consistent hematologic or cardiovascular effects.

Risks to Health and Well-Being From Radio-Frequency Radiation Emitted by Cell Phones and Other Wireless Devices Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation1 (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR.

Effects of electromagnetic fields exposure on the antioxidant defense system Electromagnetic fields (EMF) have various chemical effects, including causing deterioration in large molecules in cells and imbalance in ionic equilibrium. Despite being essential for life, oxygen molecules can lead to the generation of hazardous by-products, known as reactive oxygen species (ROS), during biological reactions. These reactive oxygen species can damage cellular components such as proteins, lipids and DNA. Antioxidant defense systems exist in order to keep free radical formation under control and to prevent their harmful effects on the biological system. Several studies have reported that exposure to EMF results in oxidative stress in many tissues of the body. Exposure to EMF is known to increase free radical concentrations and traceability and can affect the radical couple recombination.

Genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields The inconsistent results between similar studies and the same research groups have made it very difficult to make any comprehensive interpretation. However, evaluation of current studies suggests that EMF may represent a serious source of concern and may be hazardous to living organisms.

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for management of osteoarthritis-related pain, stiffness and physical function: Clinical experience in the elderly Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy has shown promising therapeutic effectiveness on bone- and cartilage-related pathologies, being also safe for management of knee osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of a PEMF device for management of knee osteoarthritis in elderly patients. No adverse reactions to therapy were observed. The present study shows that PEMF therapy improves pain, stiffness and physical function in elderly patients affected by knee osteoarthritis.

The Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field to Modulate Inflammation and Improve Tissue Regeneration: A Review Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) is emerging as innovative treatment for regulation of inflammation, which could have significant effects on tissue regeneration. PEMF modulates inflammatory processes through the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion during different stages of inflammatory response. Consistent outcomes in studies involving animal and human tissue have shown promise for the use of PEMF as an alternative or complementary treatment to pharmaceutical therapies.

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure and restraint stress induce changes on the brain lipid profile These findings suggest that chronic exposure to ELF‐EMF is similar to physiological stress, and induce changes on brain lipid profile.

Bioeffects induced by exposure to electromagnetic fields and mitigation by natural antioxidants This review aims to determine whether antioxidants can modulate the harmful of effects of electromagnetic fields, thereby influencing health and disease outcome associated with oxidative stress-induced insults. Electromagnetic fields increase oxidative stress and that dietary supplementation with antioxidants may play a role on the neutralization or buffering of the effects of electromagnetic fields with oxidizing properties. Clinical studies imply that eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and omega-3 fatty acids can help humans in decreasing oxidative stress. It can be concluded that dietary supplementation with antioxidants may play a role on the neutralization or buffering of the effects of electromagnetic fields with oxidizing properties.

Effects of Dietary Green Tea Polyphenol Supplementation on the Health of Workers Exposed to High-voltage Power Lines Yang Zhang et al. investigated the change in oxidative stress level after exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs), and the potential protective effects of green tea polyphenol supplementation (GTPS) on ELF-EMFs induced oxidative stress. Based on the findings of our studies, we believe that low-level oxidative stress is a phenomenon that serves as a bridge linking the radio-adaptive responses induced by ionizing radiation to those induced by non-ionizing radiation. Moreover, we have previously discussed that under special circumstances, exposure to mobile phone radiation can lead to some beneficial phenomena or a better response of humans to different hazards.

Favourable and Unfavourable EMF Frequency Patterns in Cancer: Perspectives for Improved Therapy and Prevention Carcinogenesis fits in a frequency pattern of electromagnetic field (EMF) waves, in which a gradual loss of cellular organization occurs. Such generation of cancer features can be inhibited by adequate exposure to coherent electro- magnetic frequencies. However, cancer can also be initiated and promoted at other distinct frequencies of electromagnetic waves. Both observations were revealed by analyzing 100 different EMF frequency data reported in a meta-analyses of 123 different, earlier published, biomedical studies. The studied EM frequencies showed a fractal pattern of 12 beneficial (anti-cancer) frequencies, and 12 detrimental (cancer promoting) frequencies, that form the central pattern of a much wider self-similar EMF spectrum of cancer inhibit- ing or promoting activities.

Why Research EMF Editors Note: When I got my new iPhone 12 Pro, I noticed nausea. It took me a while to figure out the correlation between the phone and the effects, which were especially prevalent when Hotspot mode was on. I’ve known for a while if you sleep with your iPhone (I’m sure it’s with any smartphone) nearby, that there is increased dream activity. I’ve had my new iPhone 12 Pro for more than a month now, and put it in Airplane mode at night, and keep it in another room for good sleep. I’ve ordered a EMF meter and will start testing soon. Please visit the https://cruisingreview.com website for more updates. Posted originally on December 2, 2020.

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Email: greg@swissmixit.com

CONTACT TEL: 608-238-6001 Email: greg@swissmixit.com