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Intermittent-Fasting: Publications and Research from SwissMixIt

Intermittent Fasting Botanical Information

Both intermittent fasting and specific probiotics have shown promise in improving glucose tolerance with a potential for synergistic effects through alterations to gut microbiota. In this randomized, double-blinded, two-arm feasibility study, we investigated whether intermittent fasting, supplemented with Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus HN001 probiotic, reduces HbA1c in individuals with prediabetes. intermittent fasting, fasting, obesity, calorie restriction, metabolism, insulin resistance, weight loss, Lipid Metabolism, Ketone Bodies, Caloric Restriction, Body Composition, superoxide dismutase, catalase, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, dentate gyrus, Aging, caloric restriction, exercise, rapamycin, metformin, resveratrol, spermidine, Short-term fasting, Fasting-mimicking diet, Chemotherapy, Differential stress resistance, Differential stress sensitization, Toxicity

Keywords: intermittent fasting, fasting, obesity, calorie restriction, metabolism, insulin resistance, weight loss, Lipid Metabolism, Ketone Bodies, Caloric Restriction, Body Composition, superoxide dismutase, catalase, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, dentate gyrus, Aging, caloric restriction, exercise, rapamycin, metformin, resveratrol, spermidine, Short-term fasting, Fasting-mimicking diet, Chemotherapy, Differential stress resistance, Differential stress sensitization, Toxicity

Description and Research Abstract: Both intermittent fasting and specific probiotics have shown promise in improving glucose tolerance with a potential for synergistic effects through alterations to gut microbiota. In this randomized, double-blinded, two-arm feasibility study, we investigated whether intermittent fasting, supplemented with Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus HN001 probiotic, reduces HbA1c in individuals with prediabetes.

Intermittent fasting is a form of time restricted eating (typically 16 h fasting and 8 h eating), which has gained popularity in recent years and shows promise as a possible new paradigm in the approach to weight loss and the reduction of inflammation, and has many potential long term health benefits.

Periods of voluntary abstinence from food and drink (i.e., intermittent fasting) has been practiced since earliest antiquity by peoples around the globe. Books on ethnology and religion describe a remarkable variety of fasting forms and practices. Renewed interest in fasting regimens is evidenced by a plethora of popular press publications and diet recommendations.

Conclusions: There was no significant correlation between skipping breakfast and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (after adjusting for risk factors), but a tendency of skipping breakfast to lower the risk of metabolic syndrome was observed. A rationale for these results is proposed through the association between skipping breakfast and intermittent fasting.

The flux of glucose into a PPP—particularly under extreme oxidative and toxic challenges—is critical for survival, whereas the glycolytic pathway is primarily activated when glucose is abundant, and there is lack of NADP+ that is required for the activation of glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase. An important role of glycogen stores in resistance to oxidative challenges is discussed. Current evidences explain the disruptive metabolic effects and detrimental health consequences of chronic nutritional carbohydrate overload, and provide new insights into the positive metabolic effects of intermittent fasting, caloric restriction, exercise, and ketogenic diet through modulation of redox homeostasis.

Fasting or fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs) lead to wide alterations in growth factors and in metabolite levels, generating environments that can reduce the capability of cancer cells to adapt and survive and thus improving the effects of cancer therapies. In addition, fasting or FMDs increase resistance to chemotherapy in normal but not cancer cells and promote regeneration in normal tissues, which could help prevent detrimental and potentially life-threatening side effects of treatments.

Based on the qualitative analysis, intermittent fasting was found to be efficient in reducing weight, irrespective of the body mass index.

Growing preclinical evidence shows that short-term fasting (STF) protects from toxicity while enhancing the efficacy of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of various tumour types. STF reinforces stress resistance of healthy cells, while tumor cells become even more sensitive to toxins, perhaps through shortage of nutrients to satisfy their needs in the context of high proliferation rates and/or loss of flexibility to respond to extreme circumstances. In humans, STF may be a feasible approach to enhance the efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy.

Given that cardiovascular diseases are strongly associated with aging in humans (but not in mice), the effects of exercise on human health may be even stronger than in animal models. Indeed, an increase in aerobic exercise in the elderly is associated with favorable outcomes on blood pressure, lipids, glucose tolerance, bone density, and depression. Exercise is the only known treatment that can prevent or even reverse sarcopenia, a chronic disease associated with age-related loss of muscle strength and function.

Intermittent fasting (IF) is a term used to describe a variety of eating patterns in which no or few calories are consumed for time periods that can range from 12 hours to several days, on a recurring basis.

Overfeeding seriously affects human mortality and morbidity and therefore weight loss represents an important tool to improve health and enhance the quality of life. Caloric restriction could ameliorate the health status in both obese and normal weight individuals and is one of the few methods known to prolong life span.

Our review of the literature suggests that there is little evidence to support the notion of endurance training and fasting-mediated increases in fat oxidation, and we recommend that endurance athletes should avoid high intensity training while fasting.

IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented in- creased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Sur- prisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substan- tial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioener- getics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart.

We also found that intermittent fasting decreased plasma insulin levels (1.01 uU/mL). Although our study suggests that the intermittent fasting dieting paradigm is acceptable in healthy individuals, additional research is needed to further assess the potential benefits and risks.

Intermittent fasting (ImF) is known to reduce oxidative stress and affects adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

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