Sleep: Publications and Research from SwissMixIt
Sleep plays a vital role in good health and well-being throughout your life. Getting enough quality sleep at the right times can help protect your mental health, physical health, quality of life, and safety. The damage from sleep deficiency can occur in an instant (such as a car crash), or it can harm you over time. For example, ongoing sleep deficiency can raise your risk for some chronic health problems. It also can affect how well you think, react, work, learn, and get along with others. Sleep helps your brain work properly. While you're sleeping, your brain is preparing for the next day. It's forming new pathways to help you learn and remember information. Sleep plays an important role in your physical health. For example, sleep is involved in healing and repair of your heart and blood vessels. Ongoing sleep deficiency is linked to an increased risk of heart disease, kidney disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and stroke. Sleep helps maintain a healthy balance of the hormones that make you feel hungry (ghrelin) or full (leptin). When you don't get enough sleep, your level of ghrelin goes up and your level of leptin goes down. This makes you feel hungrier than when you're well-rested. Sleep also affects how your body reacts to insulin, the hormone that controls your blood glucose (sugar) level. Sleep deficiency results in a higher than normal blood sugar level, which may increase your risk for diabetes.
Keywords: melatonin, wine, beer, polyphenols, free radical, dreaming, emotions, sleep quality, good sleepers, poor sleepers, sleep hygiene, public health, caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, exercise, stress, noise, sleep timing, napping, sleep deprivation, sleep rebound, oxidative stress, glutathione recycling, resistance to disease, REM sleep, Free radicals, Hypothalamus, Midbrain, Hindbrain, triphlorethol A, phlorotannins, marine polyphenols, sleep, EEG, hypnotic, transdermal melatonin, daytime sleep, sleep maintenance, hypnotic, EEG spectra, circadian wake drive, body temperature, alertness, copper oxide, pillowcases, skin, lifting, brightness, clinical study, Cancer incidence, Sleep duration, Categorical meta-analysis, Dose–response meta-analysis, sleep, academic performance, students, pharma
Summary of Abstracts:
Melatonin in Wine and Beer: Beneficial Effects Melatonin is a hormone secreted in the pineal gland with several functions, especially regulation of circadian sleep cycle and the biological processes related to it. This review evaluates the bioavailability of melatonin and resulting metabolites, the presence of melatonin in wine and beer and factors that influence it, and finally the different benefits related to treatment with melatonin. Melatonin (MEL) concentration varies from picograms to ng/mL in fermented beverages such as wine and beer, depending on the fermentation process. These low quantities, within a dietary intake, are enough to reach significant plasma concentrations of melatonin, and are thus able to exert beneficial effects. Melatonin has demonstrated antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective actions. These benefits are related to its free radical scavenging properties as well and the direct interaction with melatonin receptors, which are involved in complex intracellular signaling pathways, including inhibition of angiogenesis and cell proliferation, among others.
The Effects of Sleep Quality on Dream and Waking Emotions Despite the increasing interest in sleep and dream-related processes of emotion regulation, their reflection into waking and dream emotional experience remains unclear. We have previously described a discontinuity between wakefulness and dreaming, with a prevalence of positive emotions in wakefulness and negative emotions during sleep. Here we aim to investigate whether this profile may be affected by poor sleep quality. GS showed high positive emotionality in wakefulness (both past 2 weeks and 24 h) with a significant shift to negative emotionality in dreams, while PS showed evenly distributed emotional valence across all three conditions. No significant regression model emerged between waking and dream affect. In the frame of recent hypotheses on the role of dreaming in emotion regulation, our findings suggest that the different day/night expression of emotions between groups depends on a relative impairment of sleep-related processes of affect regulation in poor sleepers.
Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance at the Crossroad of Obesity with Associated Metabolic Abnormalities and Cognitive Dysfunction [ Insulin resistance can be reverse through diet, physical activity, and sleep. ] Obesity mediates most of its direct medical sequelae through the development of insulin resistance (IR). IR itself plays a key role in the development of metabolic dysfunction, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia and dysglycaemia. Furthermore, IR promotes weight gain related to secondary hyperinsulinaemia, with a resulting vicious cycle of worsening IR and its metabolic sequelae. Ultimately, IR underlies obesity-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). IR is largely reversible through the optimisation of lifestyle factors that include regular engagement in physical activity with the avoidance of sedentariness, improved diet including increased fibre intake and sleep sufficiency.
The Role of Sleep Hygiene in Promoting Public Health: A Review of Empirical Evidence The ineffectiveness of sleep hygiene as a treatment in clinical sleep medicine has raised some interesting questions. If it is known that, individually, each specific component of sleep hygiene is related to sleep, why wouldn't addressing multiple individual components (i.e., sleep hygiene education) result in improved sleep? Is there still a use for sleep hygiene? Global public health concern over poor sleep has increased the demand for effective sleep promotion strategies that are easily accessible to the general population. However, the extent to which sleep hygiene principles and strategies apply outside of clinical settings is not well known. Overall, though epidemiologic and experimental research generally supported an association between individual sleep hygiene recommendations and nocturnal sleep, the direct effects of individual recommendations on sleep remains largely untested in the general population.
Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult [ Adults should sleep 7 or more hours per night on a regular basis to promote optimal health. ] Adults should sleep 7 or more hours per night on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Sleeping less than 7 hours per night on a regular basis is associated with adverse health outcomes, including weight gain and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke, depression, and increased risk of death. Sleeping less than 7 hours per night is also asso- ciated with impaired immune function, increased pain, impaired performance, increased errors, and greater risk of accidents. Sleeping more than 9 hours per night on a regular basis may be appropriate for young adults, individu- als recovering from sleep debt, and individuals with illnesses. For others, it is uncertain whether sleeping more than 9 hours per night is associated with health risk.
Perfect timing: circadian rhythms, sleep, and immunity Recent discoveries demonstrate a critical role for circadian rhythms and sleep in immune system homeostasis. Both innate and adaptive immune responses ranging from leukocyte mobilization, trafficking, and chemotaxis to cytokine release and T cell differentiation are mediated in a time of day dependent manner.
Antioxidant defense responses to sleep loss and sleep recovery Sleep deprivation in humans is widely believed to impair health, and sleep is thought to have powerful restorative properties. The specific physical and biochemical factors and processes mediating these outcomes, however, are poorly elucidated. Sleep deprivation in the animal model produces a condition that eventually becomes highly lethal, lacks specific localization, and is reversible with sleep, implying mediation by a biochemical abnormality. Metabolic and immunological consequences of sleep deprivation point to a high potential for antioxidant imbalance.
Effect of REM sleep deprivation on the antioxidant status in the brain [ Sleep deprivation is reversible. ] Rapid eye movement [REM] sleep deprivation is a stressor. It results in a predictable syndrome of physiological changes in rats. It has been proposed that reactive oxygen species and the resulting oxidative stress may be responsible for some of the effects of sleep deprivation. This study showed that 96 hours of REM sleep deprivation results in increased lipid peroxidation and reduction in total reduced glutathione level in the discrete regions of brain studied. However following restorative sleep for 24 hours all the changes reverts back to base line value. This study shows that oxidative stress produced by 96 hours of REM sleep deprivation is reversible. From this study it is clear that, REM sleep deprivation is a potent oxidative stressor. This could probably play a role in the behavioral and performance alteration seen in both experimental animals as well as humans following REM sleep deprivation. Further investigations in this line are needed to highlight the importance of REM sleep.
Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline.
Night workers have lower levels of antioxidant defenses and higher levels of oxidative stress damage when compared to day workers [ Night worker has higher levels of oxidative stress damage and lower levels of antioxidant defenses, while social jetlag was not a possible responsible factor for this condition. ] The effects of circadian misalignment and work shift on oxidative stress profile of shift workers have not been explored in the literature. Social jetlag was calculated by the absolute difference between the mean sleep point on working and rest days. The night group presented higher systemic values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydrogen peroxide, and lower levels of nitrite, total antioxidant capacity, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in relation to the day group. However, social jetlag was not associated with oxidative stress-related biomarkers analyzed in the night group. These results suggest that the night worker has higher levels of oxidative stress damage and lower levels of antioxidant defenses, while social jetlag was not a possible responsible factor for this condition.
The Functions of Sleep Sleep is a ubiquitous component of animal life including birds and mammals. The exact function of sleep has been one of the mysteries of biology. It is well known that sleep is a homeostatically regulated body process, and that prolonged sleep deprivation is fatal in animals.
Use of sleep hygiene in the treatment of insomnia Sleep hygiene (SH) refers to a list of behaviors, environmental conditions, and other sleepErelated factors that can be adjusted as a standEalone treatment or component of multimodal treatment for patients with insomnia.
The association between sleep duration and lipid profiles [ Sleep 6 hours a day. ] Results: The highest mean HDL cholesterol level was observed in participants sleeping 8 h/day. There was a significant non-linear association between sleep duration and HDL cholesterol. The lowest mean triglyceride level was observed in people sleeping 6 h/day. There was a significant non-linear association between sleep duration and triglyceride. Conclusion: Short sleep duration was associated with low HDL cholesterol/high triglyceride. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to shed extra light on this relationship.
Triphlorethol A, a Dietary Polyphenol from Seaweed, Decreases Sleep Latency and Increases Non-Rapid Eye Movement Triphlorethol A (50 mg/kg) significantly decreased sleep latency and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep without affecting rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Triphlorethol A had no effect on delta activity (0.5–4 Hz) of NREMS, whereas zolpidem significantly decreased it. These results not only support the sleep-promoting effects of marine polyphenol phlorotannins, but also suggest that the marine polyphenol compound triphlorethol A is a promising structure for developing novel sedative hypnotics.
Use of Transdermal Melatonin Delivery to Improve Sleep Maintenance during Daytime [ Transdermal melatonin may have advantages over fast-release oral melatonin in improving sleep maintenance at adverse circadian phases. This is especially valid for people that need to sleep during the day (like night shift workers). ] Oral melatonin can improve daytime sleep, but the hormone's short elimination half-life limits its use as a hypnotic in shift workers, jet-lag and other situations. Here we show in healthy subjects that transdermal delivery of melatonin during the daytime can elevate plasma melatonin and reduce waking after sleep onset by promoting sleep in the latter part of an 8-hour sleep opportunity. Thus, transdermal melatonin may have advantages over fast-release oral melatonin in improving sleep maintenance at adverse circadian phases. Transdermal melatonin delivery was effective in elevating plasma melatonin for an extended duration during the daytime. The plasma profile differed greatly from a typical profile following fast-release oral melatonin administration and resembled the endogenous nocturnal profile more closely. Transdermal delivery may be of particular use when there is a need for sleep to begin in the morning and last until the afternoon/early evening, as typically desired by night workers and rotating shift workers. Judiciously timed melatonin delivery may also hold promise as a countermeasure against early morning awakenings, a sleep problem associated with old age.
Facial Skin Lifting and Brightening Following Sleep on Copper Oxide Containing Pillowcases Copper plays a key role in many of the physiological processes that occur in the skin. Previously it was found that sleeping on pillowcases impregnated with microscopic copper oxide particles results in reduction of wrinkles and fine lines. In the current study, it was examined if sleeping on copper oxide impregnated pillowcases results also in skin lifting and skin brightness. Skin brightness was measured using a tristimulus colorimeter. Sleeping on the test pillowcases resulted in statistically significant skin lifting on the cheek area (p = 0.039) and eye area (p = 0.001) after four weeks of use as compared to baseline. The mean skin brightness in those sleeping on the test pillowcases increased after two (p = 0.024) and four weeks (p = 0.008). No statistically significant changes occurred during the study in the study participants using the control pillowcases. Statistically significant differences between both groups were recorded at two and four weeks for skin brightness and skin lifting, respectively. In conclusion, sleeping on copper oxide containing pillowcases results in facial skin lifting and brightness of the skin. The dermal layer of the skin is composed mainly of fibroblasts and large flexible dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) structures. These ECM structures, made up mostly of collagens I and III, elastin and fibrilin fibers, and glycosaminoglycan-rich proteoglycans, strongly interact with each other providing the skin with strength, extensibility and elasticity.
Sleep duration and the risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis including dose response relationship The effect of sleep duration on cancer risk remains controversial. We aimed to quantify the available evidence on this relationship using categorical and dose–response meta-analyses. The categorical meta-analysis revealed that neither short nor long sleep duration was associated with increased cancer risk. Categorical meta-analysis indicated that short sleep duration increased cancer risk in Asians and long sleep duration increased the risk of colorectal cancer, but these findings were not consistent in the dose–response meta-analysis. Long-term randomized controlled trials and well-designed prospective studies are needed to establish causality and to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between sleep duration and cancer risk.
Sleep Duration and Academic Performance Among Student Pharmacists Conclusion. A majority of student pharmacists had suboptimal durations of sleep, defined as fewer than 7 hours. Adequate sleep the night prior to an examination was positively associated with student course grades and semester GPAs.
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