salt :

Keywords: Salt consumption, blood pressure, hypertensive rat model, glomerulosclerosis, echocardiography,diet, sodium-restricted, hypertension, kidney, sodium chloride, dietary,cardiovascular, health effects, salt or sodium intake,Restriction, Target, Hypertension, kempner rice diet,cancer, dietary factor, MDSC, cancer immunotherapy, sodium chloride (dietary),

Summary of Abstracts:

Natural sea salt consumption confers protection against hypertension and kidney damage: Our findings show that consumption of natural sea salt induces less hypertension compared to refined salt in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat.

Dietary Sodium and Health: More Than Just Blood Pressure: Sodium is essential for cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Excess dietary sodium has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP). Salt-sensitivity of BP varies widely, but certain subgroups tend to be more salt-sensitive. The mechanisms underlying sodium-induced increases in BP are not completely understood, but may involve alterations in renal function, fluid volume, fluid regulatory hormones, the vasculature, cardiac function, and the autonomic nervous system. Recent pre-clinical and clinical data support that even in the absence of an increase in BP, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and brain.

Cardiovascular and other effects of salt consumption: Salt is one of the most important determinants of high blood pressure and increased cardiovascular risk worldwide. However, a high salt intake has other adverse effects beyond those involving the cardiovascular system, so that there is renewed interest in the relationships between high salt intake and other diseases. Raised blood pressure is the dominant cause of death and disability in adults worldwide, responsible for approximately 50% of deaths from coronary heart disease and over 60% of those from stroke. The risk of cardiovascular disease increases with increasing blood pressure and a reduction in blood pressure causes a significant reduction in vascular events. The blood pressure-lowering effect of reducing salt intake is effective in men and women, in all ethnic groups, in all age groups, and all starting blood pressures.

Sodium: Sodium is the major cation of extracellular fluid [ECF2 (1 mmol, or molar equivalent, corresponding to 23 mg of sodium)]. The mean body content of sodium in the adult male is 92 g. Sodium absorption occurs almost quantitatively in the distal small bowel and the colon. Sodium balance in the body is closely linked to that of water and is finely maintained by the kidneys. Generally, small losses of sodium occur through feces and sweat; these losses increase with increasing sodium intake, although part of them are obligatory. Sodium is an essential nutrient involved in the maintenance of normal cellular homeostasis and in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure (BP). Its role is crucial for maintaining ECF volume because of its important osmotic action and is equally important for the excitability of muscle and nerve cells and for the transport of nutrients and substrates through plasma membranes.

Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension: Recently, there has been a hot debate over whether current salt intake is too high from a health perspective. It is estimated that globally 62 percent of cerebrovascular disease and 49 percent of ischaemic heart disease were attributable to elevated blood pressure. With the spread of civilization, salt became one of the world’s main trading commodities. Much of the food they ate contained salt and its consumption was increasing consequently. The oppressive salt tax in France was one of the causes of the French Revolution. In India, this tax gave rise to a civil disobedience campaign under Mahatma Ghandi against the British. Salt is an essential electrolyte to life in human beings and is used universally in cooking, seasoning, and preserving manufactured food stuffs around the world. For several million years, human ancestors ate a diet that contained less than 1 g of salt per day. Salt was the most taxed and traded commodity in the world, with intake reaching a peak around the 19th century. In 1948, Kempner introduced rice diets for the treatment of hypertension. He treated 500 hypertensive patients with a diet containing 20 g of protein, little fat, and <0.5 g salt. It mainly consisted of rice and fruit. He showed that rice diets containing little salt improved BP, decreased heart size, reversed inverted T waves in the EKG, and ameliorated hypertensive retinopathy.

Interaction of mineral salts with the skin: There is growing scientific evidence that the health, well-being and the attractiveness of the skin are strongly influenced by nutrition. Consumers recognize this and have supported the creation of a global cosmeceuticals market estimated in 2010 at $27.2 billion. Twelve vitamins and nine minerals were recognized as essential. The minerals include calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, potassium and sodium. Although the topical benefits of several minerals such as zinc, magnesium and iron are recognized and, in some cases, approved by the FDA, the topical benefits of the others to the skin are largely unexplored and unexploited.

High Salt Inhibits Tumor Growth by Enhancing Anti-tumor Immunity: Excess salt intake could affect the immune system by shifting the immune cell balance toward a pro-inflammatory state. Since this shift of the immune balance is thought to be beneficial in anti-cancer immunity, we tested the impact of high salt diets on tumor growth in mice. Here we show that high salt significantly inhibited tumor growth in two independent murine tumor transplantation models. Importantly, similar effects were observed in human MDSCs isolated from cancer patients. Thus, high salt conditions seem to inhibit tumor growth by enabling more pronounced anti-tumor immunity through the functional modulation of MDSCs. Our findings might have critical relevance for cancer immunotherapy. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cells and signals is critical for preserving immune homeostasis and a disturbed immune cell balance is believed to contribute to autoimmunity and cancer. Recent data have demonstrated that a high salt diet (HSD) could influence the immune cell balance toward a pro-inflammatory state, where the induction of pro-inflammatory cells, such as T helper 17 cells (TH17) and M1-like macrophages is promoted and the function of anti-inflammatory cells, such as M2-like macrophages and regulatory T cells (Tregs) is impaired. High salt intake is a ubiquitous phenomenon of Western diets and is indeed implicated in a plethora of diseases like cardiovascular and metabolic as well as autoimmune diseases. Particularly the pro-inflammatory effects of a HSD are believed to be associated with autoimmune diseases like e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). These pro-inflammatory effects of high salt on the immune cell balance raise the question if high salt conditions could also affect anti-tumor immunity and cancer.

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