Silver Nanoparticles


Silver nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size. While frequently described as being ‘silver’ some are composed of a large percentage of silver oxide due to their large ratio of surface to bulk silver atoms. They have unique optical, electrical, and thermal properties and can be found in products that range from photovoltaics to biological and chemical sensors. Some examples include conductive inks, pastes and fillers which utilize silver nanoparticles to utilize their high electrical conductivity, stability, and low sintering temperatures. Other applications include molecular diagnostics and photonic devices, which take advantage of the novel optical properties of these nanomaterials. Increasingly common application is the use of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial coatings, and many textiles, keyboards, wound dressings, and biomedical devices now contain silver nanoparticles that continuously release a low level of silver ions to provide protection against bacteria.

Keywords: silver nanoparticle, Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, Astragalus, nano particle based ink, circuit boards, fast sintering, mfg cost savings, Nanoengineered Materials, Coatings, Plasma Techniques, management wound infection, anti-biofilm, anti-cancer, HCC-712 cell lines, Nigella sativa, silver nanoparticle, silver nanomaterial, synthesis, characterization, mechanism, cytotoxicity, nanomedicine, diagnostics, optoelectronics, antiviral property, healthcare workers (HCWs), medical application, microbicidal property, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), cytotoxicity, silver nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, applications, mechanisms, cancer therapy, Nanosilver Nanoparticles, Cosmetic, Toxicity, Application in Cosmetics, Silver nanoparticle, Green synthesis, Lycopersicon esculentum, Antibacterial activity, Escherichia coli, Intensification, Nanoparticles, Synthesis, SFTR, Microreactor, SDR, process intensification, sdr, PI, process, soli

Summary of Abstracts:

The Design, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Heat and Silver Crosslinked Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Hydrogel Forming Dressings Containing Silver Nanoparticles: The prompt treatment of burn wounds is essential but can be challenging in remote parts of Africa, where burns from open fires are a constant hazard for children and suitable medical care may be far away. Consequently, there is an unmet need for an economical burn wound dressing with a sustained antimicrobial activity that might be manufactured locally at low cost. This study describes and characterizes the novel preparation of a silver nitrate-loaded/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film. Physical and chemical characterization of such films was complemented by in vitro studies that confirmed the effective antibacterial activity of the released silver nanoparticles against both gram positive and negative bacteria. Overall, these findings provide economical and simple methods to manufacture stable, hydrogel forming wound dressings that release antibiotic silver over prolonged periods suitable for emergency use in remote locations.

Multiplexed Nanobiosensors: Current Trends in Early Diagnostics: The ever-growing demand for fast, cheap, and reliable diagnostic tools for personalised medicine is encouraging scientists to improve existing technology platforms and to create new methods for the detection and quantification of biomarkers of clinical significance. Simultaneous detection of multiple analytes allows more accurate assessment of changes in biomarker expression and offers the possibility of disease diagnosis at the earliest stages. The concept of multiplexing, where multiple analytes can be detected in a single sample, can be tackled using several types of nanomaterial-based biosensors. Quantum dots are widely used photoluminescent nanoparticles and represent one of the most frequent choices for different multiplex systems. However, nanoparticles that incorporate gold, silver, and rare earth metals with their unique optical properties are an emerging perspective in the multiplexing field.

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Astragalus tribuloides Delile. Root Extract: Characterization, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Anti Inflammatory Activities: [ Astragalus root can be used to manufacture silver nanoparticles. ] Today, the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a promising strategy in material science and nanotechnology. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized through the high-efficient, cost-effective green and facile process, using the Astragalus tribuloides Delile. root extract as a bioreduction and capping agent at room temperature. The biological procedure is more promising as compared to physical and chemical methods because it is economical, flexible, and eco-friendly. Reduced Ag is toxic to microorganisms because it has the ability to damage their cell walls and disrupt their appropriate functions and development. This is because the released Ag ions interact with macromolecules like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins in these cells. Because of their small size and the large surface-area-to-volume ratio, the AgNPs might show the higher biological activity than that exerted by ionic Ag. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first study on the green synthesis of the AgNPs by the root extract of the studied medicinal plant. The current study presented the very simple, fast, affordable, and environmentally friendly green The current study presented the very simple, fast, affordable, and environmentally friendly synthesis of AgNPs by the A. tribuloides Delile. root extract as a bioreducing and capping agent. The AgNPs the synthesized AgNPs were spherical, with a distribution of size from 16.2 to 51.5 nm. The AgNPs fabricated by using the A. tribuloides root extract according to the procedure proposed in the present work have potent antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties, which were remarkably better than those established for the extract itself. Therefore, the greenly synthesized AgNPs can be used for biomedical applications, as a new drug combination.

Transformation and Cytotoxicity of Surface-Modified Silver Nanoparticles Undergoing Long-Term Aging: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are constituents of many consumer products, but the future of their production depends on ensuring safety. The stability of AgNPs in various physiological solutions and aging in storage may affect the accuracy of predicted nanoparticle toxicity. Overall, our findings showed that storage and media of AgNPs influenced the transformation of AgNPs and that the resulting changes in the AgNPs’ physicochemical properties influenced their toxicity. Our study contributes to the understanding of AgNPs’ transformations under realistic exposure scenarios and increasing the predictability of risk assessments.

Silver Nanoparticle Regulates Salt Tolerance in Wheat Through Changes in ABA Concentration, Ion Homeostasis, and Defense Systems: [ Silver nanoparticles may help salt tolerance in plants. ] Salinity is major abiotic stress affecting crop yield, productivity and reduces the land-usage area for agricultural practices. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of green-synthesized silver nanoparticle (AgNP) on physiological traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under salinity stress. The study shows a promising approach in salt tolerance and suggests that mechanisms of inducing the salt tolerance depend on proline metabolism, ions accumulation, and defense mechanisms. This study ascertains the queries regarding the correlation between nanoparticles use and traditional agriculture methodology; also significantly facilitates to reach the goal of sustainable developments for increasing crop productivity via much safer and greener approachability.

Bactericidal Antibacterial Mechanism of Plant Synthesized Silver, Gold and Bimetallic Nanoparticles: As the field of nanomedicine develops and tackles the recent surge in antibiotic resistance, there is a need to have an in-depth understanding and a synergistic view of research on the effectiveness of a metal nanoparticle (NP) as an antibacterial agent especially their mechanisms of action. The constant development of bacterial resistance has led scientists to develop novel antibiotic agents. Silver, gold and its bimetallic combination are one of the most promising metal NPs because they show strong antibacterial activity. These mechanisms include DNA degradation, protein oxidation, generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, ATP depletion, damage of biomolecules and membrane interaction.

Photochemical Preparation of Silver Colloids in Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose for Antibacterial Materials with Controlled Release of Silver: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) possess strong antibacterial effect. The current trend is to incorporate AgNPs into functional materials that benefit from their bactericidal capabilities.

Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber Membrane Modified with Ag/GO Composite for Water Purification System: [ The Ag/GO-PAN nanofiber membrane also showed 30 percent higher water flux value (390 LMH) than that of bare-PAN (300 LMH) for possible microfiltration (MF) application. This can have a huge beneficial impact on wastewater treatment. ] Silver nanoparticle-modified graphene oxide (Ag/GO) was reliably prepared by using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of citric acid capping agent via a simple wet chemistry method. This rapidly formed Ag/GO composite exhibited good dispersity in a solution containing hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Subsequent electrospinning of this precursor solution resulted in the successful formation of nanofibers without any notable defects. The Ag/GO-PAN nanofiber membrane also showed 30% higher water flux value (390 LMH) than that of bare-PAN (300 LMH) for possible microfiltration (MF) application. In addition, the resulting Ag/GO-PAN nanofiber membrane exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive). Furthermore, this composite membrane exhibited outstanding anti-fouling property compared to the GO-PAN nanofiber membrane in the wastewater treatment. Therefore, the simple modification strategy allows for the effective formation of Ag/GO composite as a filler that can be reliably incorporated into polymer nanofiber membranes to possess improved overall properties for wastewater treatment applications.

Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Obtained by a Green Route and Their Evaluation in the Bacterium of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Metal nanoparticles are widely used in different areas such as biotechnology and biomedicine, for example in drug delivery, imaging and control of bacterial growth. The antimicrobial effect of silver has been identified as an alternative approach to the increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the green route using the Geranium extract as a reducing agent. We evaluate the antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles obtained by a green methodology in Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. Finally, the colloidal nanoparticle solution can be an antibacterial alternative for different biomedical approaches.

Layer Morphology and Ink Compatibility of Silver Nanoparticle Inkjet Inks for Near-Infrared Sintering: [ Nano particle based ink can be used for fast sintering, in the field of printed electronic circuit boards with a 500 percent reduction in post processing time and a heat reduction from 200 C to 120 C. ] The field of printed electronics is rapidly evolving, producing low cost applications with enhanced performances with transparent, stretchable properties and higher reliability. Due to the versatility of printed electronics, industry can consider the implementation of electronics in a way which was never possible before. However, a post processing step to achieve conductive structure (known as sintering) limits the production ease and speed of printed electronics. This study addresses the issues related to fast sintering without scarifying important properties such as conductivity and surface roughness. A drop on demand inkjet printer is employed to deposit silver nanoparticle based inks. The post processing time of these inks is reduced by replacing the conventional oven sintering procedure with the state of the art method, named near infrared sintering. By doing so, the post-processing time shortens from 30 to 60 min to 6 to 8 s. Furthermore, the maximum substrate temperature during sintering is reduced from 200 C to 120 C. Based on the results of this study, one can conclude that near-infrared sintering is a ready to industrialize post-processing method for the production of printed electronics, capable of sintering inks at high speed, low temperature and with low complexity. Furthermore, it becomes clear that ink optimization plays an important role in processing inkjet printable inks, especially after being near infrared sintered.

Bactericidal Silver Nanoparticles by Atmospheric Pressure Solution Plasma Processing: Silver nanoparticles have applications in plasmonics, medicine, catalysis and electronics. We report a simple, cost-effective, facile and reproducible technique to synthesise silver nanoparticles via plasma-induced non-equilibrium liquid chemistry with the absence of a chemical reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles with tuneable sizes from 5.4 to 17.8 nm are synthesised and characterised using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and other analytic techniques. A mechanism for silver nanoparticle formation is also proposed. The antibacterial activity of the silver nanoparticles was investigated with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The inhibition of both bacteria types was observed. This is a promising alternative method for the instant synthesis of silver nanoparticles, instead of the conventional chemical reduction route, for numerous applications.

Evaluation of the Sheet Resistance of Inkjet Printed Ag Layers on Flexible, Uncoated Paper Substrates Using Van der Pauws Method: With the growing significance of printed sensors on the electronics market, new demands on quality and reproducibility have arisen. While most printing processes on standard substrates (e.g., Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) are well-defined, the printing on substrates with rather porous, fibrous and rough surfaces (e.g., uncoated paper) contains new challenges. Especially in the case of inkjet-printing and other deposition techniques that require low-viscous nanoparticle inks the solvents and deposition materials might be absorbed, inhibiting the formation of homogeneous conductive layers. The results indicate that the achievable conductivity as well as the reproducibility decrease with increasing substrate porosity and fibrousness.

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Odontosoria chinensis (L.) J. Sm. and Evaluation of their Biological Potentials: [ Silver nanoparticles from Lace Fern have demonstrated toxicity, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory potential of the studied AgNPs which could be tested as an alternative to anticancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory drugs. ] The present study was aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the aqueous extracts of Odontosoria chinensis (L.) J. Sm. and the synthesized AgNPs were examined for their biopotentials. The time taken for the complete reduction of Silver (Ag) in solution to nanoparticle was 10 min. The O. chinensis aqueous extracts mediated silver nanoparticles showed a broad peak with distinct absorption at around 400 to 420 nm and confirmed the silver nanoparticle formation. The anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities of aqueous and AgNPs of O. chinenesis were statistically significant at p < 0.05 level. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the toxicity, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory potential of the studied AgNPs. The synthesized nanoparticles of Odontosoria chinensis could be tested as an alternative to anticancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Wound Dressings Coated with Silver Nanoparticles and Essential Oils for The Management of Wound Infections: [ Wound dressings based on silver nanoparticles, sodium alginate and essential oils have real potential in treating infections. ] Infection represents one of the major risk factors in persistent and difficult to treat wounds. This study focuses on developing antimicrobial wound dressings coated with silver nanoparticles, sodium alginate and different essential oils, to avoid wound infection and biofilm formation. The developed wound dressings based on silver nanoparticles, sodium alginate and essential oils have real potential in treating infections, and can be investigated as an efficient alternative to antibiotics and topical preparations for wound management.

Antibacterial, Antibiofilm and Anticancer Activity of Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Seed Extract of Nigella sativa: [ Silver nanoparticles produced from Black Seed exhibit Antibacterial, Antibiofilm and Anticancer Activity. ] Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) based approaches using plant materials have been accepted as biomedical applications. The current study aimed to test the antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by seed extract of Nigella sativa (Ns) as stabilizing and reducing agents. Furthermore, biologically synthesized AgNPs showed the significant bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity. Moreover, Ns-AgNPs revealed significant cytotoxic ability and substantially killed human breast cancer cell (HCC-712) viability. The results of current study advocate that Ns-AgNps may be considered as a potential option in biomedical applications, alternative therapy, designing anti-biofilm agents, treating multi drug resistance bacterial infection, and anti-cancer therapy.

Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Application for Nanomedicine: Over the past few decades, metal nanoparticles less than 100 nm in diameter have made a substantial impact across diverse biomedical applications, such as diagnostic and medical devices, for personalized healthcare practice. In particular, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have great potential in a broad range of applications as antimicrobial agents, biomedical device coatings, drug-delivery carriers, imaging probes, and diagnostic and optoelectronic platforms, since they have discrete physical and optical properties and biochemical functionality tailored by diverse size- and shape-controlled AgNPs.

Synthesis and Application of Silver Nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for the Prevention of Infection in Healthcare Workers: Silver is easily available and is known to have microbicidal effect; moreover, it does not impose any adverse effects on the human body. The microbicidal effect is mainly due to silver ions, which have a wide antibacterial spectrum. Furthermore, the development of multidrug-resistant bacteria, as in the case of antibiotics, is less likely. Silver ions bind to halide ions, such as chloride, and precipitate; therefore, when used directly, their microbicidal activity is shortened. To overcome this issue, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been recently synthesized and frequently used as microbicidal agents that release silver ions from particle surface. Ag NPs are useful countermeasures against infectious diseases, which constitute a major issue in the medical field. Thus, medical tools coated with Ag NPs are being developed. This review outlines the synthesis and utilization of Ag NPs in the medical field, focusing on environment-friendly synthesis and the suppression of infections in healthcare workers (HCWs).

Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches: Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Silver Nanoparticles in Cosmetics: This review is presented as a common interest in silver nanoparticles, their origin, activity, and toxicity in cosmetic. The application of nanotechnology and nanomaterials can be found in many cosmetic products including moisturizer, hair care products, makeup and sunscreen. Nanomaterials are now being used in leading cosmetics products, most commonly as chemicals used to give the protection. A silver nanoparticle is the potent and broad spectrum antimicrobial agent.

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and characterization of their inhibitory effects on AGEs formation using biophysical techniques: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) resulting from non-enzymatic glycation are one of the major factors implicated in secondary complications of diabetes. Scientists are focusing on discovering new compounds that may be used as potential AGEs inhibitors without affecting the normal structure and function of biomolecules. A number of natural and synthetic compounds have been proposed as AGE inhibitors. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) in AGEs formation. The results showed that AgNPs significantly inhibit AGEs formation in a concentration dependent manner and that AgNPs have a positive effect on protein structure. These findings strongly suggest that AgNPs may play a therapeutic role in diabetes-related complications.

Silver Nanoparticles in Therapeutics: Development of an Antimicrobial Gel Formulation for Topical Use: Silver is an effective antimicrobial agent with low toxicity, which is important especially in the treatment of burn wounds where transient bacteremia is prevalent and its fast control is essential. Drugs releasing silver in ionic forms are known to get neutralized in biological fluids and upon long-term use may cause cosmetic abnormality, e.g., argyria and delayed wound healing. Given its broad spectrum activity, efficacy and lower costs, the search for newer and superior silver based antimicrobial agents is necessary. These results clearly indicate that silver nanoparticles could provide a safer alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents in the form of a topical antimicrobial formulation.

Silver Nanoparticles in Cosmetics: This review is presented as a common interest in silver nanoparticles, their origin, activity, and toxicity in cosmetic. The application of nanotechnology and nanomaterials can be found in many cosmetic products including moisturizer, hair care products, makeup and sunscreen. Nanomate- rials are now being used in leading cosmetics products, most commonly as chemicals used to give the protection. A silver nanoparticle is the potent and broad spectrum antimicrobial agent. This review paper looks into use of nano silver and provides an overview of current activity in this area.

On the anti-cancer activities of silver nanoparticles: Cancer is a group of diseases, generating various pathological and metabolic changes in cellular environments. It is developed through diverse signaling mechanisms including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Cancer cells have abnormal metabolic activities in aerobic glycolysis, mitochondrial DNA depletion, and alterations in respiratory chains and genomic expressions. The physical and chemical treatments of cancer are limited at different stages. However, currently available therapies have an adverse effect and affect normal cell functions while giving excess drug and radiation exposures. Recently, AgNPs are reported to modulate the Pgp activity and therefore enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy against multi-drug resistant cancer cells, thus, further emphasizing their excellent potential as combinational partners. Moreover, the genotoxicity of AgNPs is supported by the generation of double-stranded DNA breaks along with chromosomal instability that drives the initiation of apoptotic execution. This acting mechanism implies that AgNPs can be mutually associated with a great many DNA-targeting anticancer drugs.

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Apple Extract and Its Antibacterial Properties: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using apple extract as a reducing agent and aqueous silver nitrate as the precursor. The AgNPs formation was observed as a color change of the mixture from colorless to dark-brownish. This green synthesis provides an economic, eco-friendly, and clean synthesis route to AgNPs. AgNPs in suspension showed activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). A number of biomolecules in extracts have been shown to successfully act as reducing agents in the green synthesis of AgNPs. For example, black tea leaf extract has been used for the biosynthesis of AgNPs with sizes averaging 20 nm. The extract of Mangifera indica leaf also produces AgNPs with sizes of about 20 nm. Extracts from fruits such as the red fruits of the piquin pepper (Capsicum annuum var. aviculare) have also been shown to produce AgNPs in the range of 3–10 nm. The aqueous extract of Hovenia dulcis fruit produces AgNPs with sizes of 45 nm.

Antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) extract: [ Silver nanoparticles can be produced from tomato extracts. ] Background: It has been known for quite some time now that silver nanoparticles (AgNP) can inhibit microbial growth and even kill microbes. Our investigation reports the antimicrobial activity of AgNP against a model bacterium, Escherichia coli. Methods: The aqueous extract of Lycopersicon esculentum (red tomato) was used for the rapid synthesis of AgNP, which is very simple and eco-friendly in nature. The UV-visible spectroscopy technique was employed to establish the formation of AgNP. Conclusions: From the slope of the bacterial growth curve, it has been concluded that the nanoparticles are bacteriostatic at low concentration and bactericidal at high concentration. So these nanoparticles are believed to act as preventive for bacterial contamination.

Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles from Cannabis sativa (Industrial hemp) and their capacity for biofilm inhibition: Background: Cannabis sativa (hemp) is a source of various biologically active compounds, for instance, cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, which exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. With the purpose of expanding the auxiliary application of C. sativa in the field of bio-nanotechnology, we explored the plant for green and efficient synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Methods and results: The nanoparticles were synthesized by utilizing an aqueous extract of C. sativa stem separated into two different fractions (cortex and core [xylem part]) without any additional reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. Conclusion: The synthesized nanoparticles were crystalline with an average diameter between 12 and 18 nm for F-AuNPs and C-AuNPs and in the range of 20-40 nm for C-AgNPs.

The Spinning Disk Reactor for Polymers and Nanoparticles: [ Spinning disc reactors can be used for production of silver nanoparticles. ] The advantages of an SDR (excellent mass and heat transfer, minimal energy, and material usage, easy scale up as well as flexibility) are discussed. Where experiments are described comparing the SDR with traditional batch processes, known, optimized industrial batch processes are chosen. In all cases, the SDR could be shown to yield equivalent product quality while having procedural advantages.

Effect of the Reactor Configuration on the Production of Silver Nanoparticles: The main aim of this work is to show the effect of the reactor configuration on the production of silver nanoparticles by chemical synthesis. Silver nanoparticles were produced in batch mode using the chemical precipitation method. It was shown that the intensification of the mixing process, provided by the turbine impeller and the use of the SDR, leads to a decrease of the nanoparticles average size from 31 down to 16 nm. On the contrary, the yield was affected by both the mixing effectiveness and the reactor residence time. At the optimal condition a value of yield equal to 93 percent was obtained. The purity of the obtained nanoparticles was in all the cases quite satisfactory in the range 89 to 96 percent of silver.

Process Intensification Approach for the Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles : A Mini Review: Nowadays nanoparticles are of great interest of researchers because of their various applications in different fields. Since, using the intensification technology which, includes minimization plant or equipment size in the synthesis process, leads the process miniaturization, energy efficiency, safety and cost reduction using this technology in the production of nanoparticles is highly regarded. The present paper, is an attempt to present a review of Process intensification (PI) techniques which are used in nanoparticles synthesis process.

Preparation of Silver Iodide Nanoparticles Using a Spinning Disk Reactor in a Continuous Mode: The main theme of this research was to synthesize silver iodide nanoparticles using a spinning disk reactor (SDR), which is a type of high-gravity equipment. The centrifugal force was used to produce extremely thin film on the surface of a rotating disk. The waves and ripples generated on the disk surface enhanced the mixing intensity and mass-transfer rate and thus shortened the reaction time. The reactants were AgNO3 and KI, and the protecting agent tested was polyethylene glycol (PEG). The reaction was carried out in a spinning disk reactor by injecting two streams of AgNO3 and KI solution continuously. The reaction time was less than 1 min, which was considerably shorter than the conventional wet chemical process using a batch stirred vessel.

Solids handling for intensified process technology: Process intensification (PI) is a process development involving dramatically smaller, continuous mode processing equipment that leads to higher selectivity, reduced waste, higher energy efficiency, reduced capital costs, reduced inventory, improved intrinsic safety, and better response times. Despite these advantages, PI is still largely applied to gas/liquid and liquid/liquid systems. For powders and bulk solids, which make up the processes involved in a broad spectrum of industries (from mineral processing to pharmaceuticals), PI implementation is frequently blocked mainly by the presence of particulate solids that could clog small channels, as well as cause fouling. To address this issue, a fundamental understanding of PI technologies that are applicable to solids handling must firstly be established. A number of PI technologies exhibiting promising potential for the case studies have been identified for processes involving milling, mixing, granulation/particle coating and drying. The use of multifunctional equipment combining various operations such as mixing/granulation/drying can also be envisaged.

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